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Empower Your Business with Our Comprehensive Glossary

Unlock Key Terms and Definitions for the Retail/Wholesale Industry



Active refers to a status or state of a product or item that is currently available for sale or in inventory. It indicates that the item is not discontinued or out of stock and can be purchased or ordered by customers. In retail/wholesale, active products are those that are actively marketed, stocked, and offered to customers, contributing to the company's current inventory and sales. The status of a product as active allows it to be included in promotions, displayed in stores or on websites, and made accessible to potential buyers. It helps retailers and wholesalers manage their inventory and ensure a steady supply of products to meet customer demand.


ADD stands for Additional Discount and refers to an extra deduction or reduction in the price of a product or order. It is a financial incentive offered by retailers or wholesalers to customers, often as a means to encourage purchases or reward loyalty. An ADD can be a fixed amount or a percentage of the total cost and is applied to the existing discounts or sale prices. By providing additional discounts, retailers and wholesalers aim to attract more customers, increase sales volume, clear excess inventory, or strengthen customer relationships. ADDs are commonly used during promotional campaigns, seasonal sales, clearance events, or as negotiation tools in business-to-business transactions.


An agent is a person or entity who acts as an intermediary between manufacturers or suppliers and retailers or buyers. The agent represents the interests of one or multiple manufacturers or suppliers and facilitates the sale and distribution of their products to retailers. They play a crucial role in connecting suppliers with potential buyers, negotiating terms and conditions, coordinating logistics, and ensuring smooth communication and transactions between all parties involved. Agents often possess extensive knowledge of the industry, market trends, and product details, allowing them to provide valuable guidance and support to both suppliers and retailers. They may earn commissions or fees based on sales volume or the value of transactions facilitated, making their income dependent on successful business collaborations. An agent's expertise and network can significantly benefit retailers and suppliers by streamlining the supply chain, expanding market reach, and enabling efficient trade relationships.


Allocation refers to the process of assigning or distributing a specific quantity or portion of a product to a particular location, store, or channel. It involves determining how many units of a product should be allocated to each retail store or distribution center based on factors such as demand, sales history, store size, location, and inventory availability. The allocation process aims to optimize the distribution of products to meet customer demand while minimizing stockouts and excess inventory. By strategically allocating products, retailers and wholesalers can ensure that each store or channel has an appropriate inventory level to support sales and customer satisfaction. Allocation decisions are often made using data analysis, forecasting models, and market insights to achieve an efficient and effective distribution strategy.


Allocate refers to the action of assigning or distributing a specific quantity or portion of a product to a particular location, store, or channel. It involves the process of determining how many units of a product should be assigned to each retail store or distribution center based on various factors such as demand, sales history, store size, location, and inventory availability. The allocation process aims to optimize the distribution of products to meet customer demand while minimizing stockouts and excess inventory. By strategically allocating products, retailers and wholesalers can ensure that each store or channel has an appropriate inventory level to support sales and customer satisfaction. Allocation decisions are often made using data analysis, forecasting models, and market insights to achieve an efficient and effective distribution strategy.


An allowance refers to a financial concession or deduction provided to customers, retailers, or business partners as a form of incentive, compensation, or adjustment. Allowances can take various forms, such as trade discounts, promotional discounts, volume-based discounts, rebates, or credit adjustments. They are often used to encourage sales, reward customer loyalty, stimulate bulk purchases, compensate for product defects or delays, or offset marketing expenses incurred by retailers. Allowances are typically negotiated and agreed upon between suppliers or manufacturers and retailers or business partners as part of their contractual or commercial arrangements. The purpose of allowances is to foster mutually beneficial relationships, incentivize desired behaviors, and support the overall profitability and competitiveness of the retail/wholesale ecosystem.

Assist Buyer

An Assist Buyer, also known as an Assistant Buyer, is a retail industry professional who supports the Buyer or Category Manager in various aspects of the procurement process. They assist in the selection, purchasing, and inventory management of merchandise to ensure the availability of products that meet customer demand and achieve business objectives. Assist Buyers collaborate with vendors, review product specifications, monitor market trends, analyze sales data, negotiate pricing and terms, and handle administrative tasks related to purchasing activities. They play a vital role in maintaining effective supplier relationships, coordinating product orders, managing inventory levels, and optimizing the assortment of products offered by a retailer. Assist Buyers contribute to the overall success of a retail organization by assisting in the development and execution of merchandising strategies, driving sales, and maximizing profitability.

ATS (Available to Sell)

ATS (Available to Sell) refers to the quantity of a product or inventory available for immediate sale at a given point in time. It represents the stock that is not committed or allocated to specific orders, customers, or channels, and is considered available for general purchase. Retailers and wholesalers use ATS as a key metric to monitor and manage their inventory levels, determine stock replenishment needs, and ensure they can meet customer demand. ATS is calculated by subtracting allocated or committed quantities from the total inventory quantity. By tracking and analyzing ATS, businesses can make informed decisions regarding purchasing, restocking, promotions, and inventory allocation to maximize sales, minimize stockouts, and optimize overall inventory management.

Bills of Ladings (BOL or BL)

A Bill of Lading (BOL or BL) is a legal document issued by a carrier or transportation company to acknowledge the receipt of goods and outline the terms and conditions of their shipment. It serves as evidence of a contract between the shipper, carrier, and recipient of the goods. The BOL contains essential information such as the description of the goods, quantity, weight, packaging, origin, destination, shipping date, carrier details, and any special instructions or requirements. In the retail/wholesale industry, Bills of Lading are crucial for documenting the movement of goods from the manufacturer or supplier to the retailer or buyer. They provide proof of ownership, serve as a receipt of delivery, facilitate insurance claims, and enable the tracking and tracing of shipments throughout the supply chain. Bills of Lading are legally binding documents and play a vital role in international trade, logistics, and freight transportation.

Blanket PO

A Blanket Purchase Order (Blanket PO) is a long-term procurement agreement between a buyer and a supplier. It establishes the terms and conditions, pricing, and delivery details for the purchase of goods or services over a specified period, typically months or even years. Unlike regular purchase orders, which are issued for specific quantities and delivery dates, a Blanket PO provides flexibility by allowing multiple releases or shipments under a single agreement. Blanket POs are commonly used for items with ongoing demand or when the exact quantities or delivery schedules are uncertain but require a predetermined price and terms. They streamline the purchasing process, simplify administrative tasks, and enable buyers to efficiently manage the procurement of recurring goods or services. Blanket POs benefit both buyers and suppliers by establishing a framework for long-term collaboration, ensuring continuity of supply, and facilitating cost-effective purchasing.


Bluecherry is an enterprise resource planning (ERP) software specifically designed for the fashion, apparel, and retail industry. It provides comprehensive solutions for managing various aspects of a fashion business, including product development, sourcing, production, inventory control, order management, sales analysis, and financials. Bluecherry's features and modules encompass product lifecycle management (PLM), supply chain management (SCM), customer relationship management (CRM), warehouse management, e-commerce integration, and reporting and analytics. It helps retailers and wholesalers streamline their operations, improve efficiency, and enhance visibility across the entire supply chain. Bluecherry enables businesses to track and manage key processes, such as style creation, sourcing materials, production tracking, order fulfillment, inventory control, and financial management, in a centralized and integrated system. By leveraging Bluecherry, fashion companies can optimize their workflows, reduce costs, increase productivity, enhance collaboration with suppliers and customers, and make data-driven decisions to drive growth and profitability.

BOM (Bill of Material)

A Bill of Material (BOM) is a comprehensive document that provides detailed information about the components, parts, materials, and quantities required to manufacture a finished product. In the retail/wholesale industry, a BOM serves as a crucial reference for product development, production planning, and inventory management. It lists all the raw materials, intermediate components, subassemblies, and packaging materials needed to assemble a final product. The BOM includes details such as part numbers, descriptions, quantities, units of measure, specifications, and hierarchical relationships between the components. It helps manufacturers, suppliers, and retailers ensure the availability of the necessary materials, estimate production costs, plan manufacturing processes, manage inventory levels, and ensure consistent product quality. The BOM also facilitates communication and collaboration between different departments involved in the product lifecycle, including design, procurement, production, quality control, and sales. By maintaining accurate and up-to-date BOMs, businesses can streamline their operations, minimize errors, optimize resource utilization, and effectively manage their supply chain.


Booked refers to the status of an order or sale when it is confirmed and recorded in a company's books or systems. It indicates that the customer or buyer has committed to purchasing the product or service and that the transaction has been officially documented. When an order is booked, it becomes a binding agreement between the seller and the buyer, outlining the terms, quantities, pricing, delivery dates, and other relevant details. In the retail/wholesale industry, tracking booked orders is essential for order fulfillment, inventory management, production planning, and financial reporting. It helps businesses ensure that they can meet customer demand, allocate resources accordingly, schedule production or procurement activities, and monitor the progress and success of sales efforts. By maintaining accurate records of booked orders, retailers and wholesalers can effectively manage their operations, provide visibility into the sales pipeline, and ensure timely and accurate delivery of products to customers.


Bulk refers to large quantities or volumes of goods or merchandise. It indicates that the products are packaged, stored, or transported in large quantities, typically for commercial purposes. In the retail/wholesale industry, bulk purchases or bulk orders often involve buying goods in larger quantities than regular or standard packages. Retailers and wholesalers may opt for bulk purchases to take advantage of discounted prices, economies of scale, or to meet high customer demand. Bulk products are usually repackaged or divided into smaller units for sale to individual customers. Common examples of bulk products include bulk food items, bulk office supplies, bulk clothing, or bulk cleaning supplies. Handling bulk quantities may require specialized storage facilities, equipment, and logistical arrangements. By offering bulk options, retailers and wholesalers can cater to different customer preferences, provide cost-effective solutions, and optimize their purchasing and inventory management strategies.

Bulk Order

A bulk order refers to a large purchase of goods or merchandise made by a retailer or wholesaler from a supplier or manufacturer. It involves buying products in significant quantities, often at discounted prices or special terms. Bulk orders are commonly placed to fulfill high customer demand, stock up inventory, take advantage of volume-based discounts, or prepare for seasonal sales. They allow retailers and wholesalers to replenish their stock, ensure product availability, and negotiate more favorable pricing and conditions. Bulk orders may require specific arrangements for shipping, storage, and delivery due to the large quantities involved. By placing bulk orders, retailers and wholesalers can benefit from cost savings, improved profit margins, streamlined supply chain operations, and enhanced customer satisfaction.

Buy Plan

A buy plan, also known as a merchandise plan, is a strategic document or framework that outlines the purchasing and inventory management strategy for a specific product category or department within a retail or wholesale organization. It helps retailers and wholesalers align their buying decisions with market trends, customer demand, sales forecasts, and financial objectives. A buy plan typically includes information such as sales history, market analysis, assortment planning, target inventory levels, pricing strategy, promotional activities, and replenishment schedules. It serves as a roadmap for making purchasing decisions, optimizing inventory levels, and maximizing profitability. By developing and implementing a buy plan, retailers and wholesalers can ensure that they have the right products in the right quantities, at the right time, and at the right price to meet customer needs, drive sales, and achieve their business goals.


A buyer, also known as a purchasing agent or procurement specialist, is an individual responsible for selecting, sourcing, and purchasing goods or services on behalf of a retailer or wholesaler. Buyers play a critical role in the supply chain management process, ensuring that the right products are available at the right time and at the right price. They collaborate with suppliers, negotiate contracts, analyze market trends, evaluate product quality and pricing, manage inventory levels, and maintain relationships with vendors. Buyers are tasked with identifying suppliers, evaluating their capabilities, assessing product quality, and negotiating favorable terms and conditions. Their responsibilities also include staying updated on industry trends, monitoring competitor activities, analyzing sales data, and making informed buying decisions to support the overall business objectives. Effective buyers contribute to the success of a retail or wholesale organization by ensuring a reliable supply of products, optimizing costs, managing inventory efficiently, and delivering the desired product assortment to meet customer demand.

CAD (Computer Aided Design)

CAD, or Computer-Aided Design, refers to the use of computer software and tools to create, modify, and visualize detailed designs, drawings, or models of products or structures. In the retail/wholesale industry, CAD technology is widely employed in various areas, such as fashion design, product development, store layout planning, packaging design, and visual merchandising. CAD software enables designers and engineers to create precise and accurate digital representations of products, incorporating detailed specifications, dimensions, materials, colors, and textures. It enhances the design process, allowing for quick iterations, realistic renderings, and virtual simulations. CAD facilitates collaboration between different teams, streamlines communication with manufacturers and suppliers, and supports the production and manufacturing processes. By using CAD, retailers and wholesalers can accelerate the product development cycle, reduce costs associated with physical prototyping and sampling, improve design accuracy, and bring innovative and visually appealing products to the market.


A calendar refers to a structured system for organizing and planning activities, events, promotions, and critical dates throughout the year. Retail calendars are typically used to synchronize merchandising strategies, sales cycles, product launches, promotional campaigns, and other business operations. A retail calendar may include important dates such as holidays, seasons, industry trade shows, sales periods, inventory audits, planning and budgeting cycles, and marketing campaigns. By aligning activities with the retail calendar, retailers and wholesalers can effectively coordinate their efforts, ensure timely execution of initiatives, optimize inventory management, and maximize sales opportunities. The calendar serves as a visual tool that helps teams stay organized, collaborate effectively, and plan ahead to meet customer demands, capitalize on seasonal trends, and achieve their business objectives.


Cargo refers to goods, products, or merchandise being transported by air, sea, land, or rail. In the retail/wholesale industry, cargo represents the physical inventory that is in transit from suppliers or manufacturers to retailers or distribution centers. It includes a wide range of items, such as finished products, raw materials, components, packaging materials, and supplies. Cargo can be shipped in containers, pallets, crates, or individual packages, depending on the nature and size of the products. Efficient cargo management is crucial for ensuring the timely and secure delivery of goods, minimizing transportation costs, optimizing inventory levels, and meeting customer demand. Retailers and wholesalers rely on various logistics and freight management strategies to track, handle, and coordinate cargo movements, including transportation scheduling, warehouse operations, customs clearance, and last-mile delivery. By effectively managing cargo, businesses can maintain supply chain efficiency, reduce lead times, improve customer satisfaction, and support their overall operations.


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Category Captain

A Category Captain, also known as a Category Advisor or Category Manager, is a retail industry term referring to a supplier or vendor who takes a leading role in managing a specific product category within a retail store or chain. The Category Captain works closely with the retailer to develop and execute category strategies, optimize product assortments, drive sales, and enhance the overall performance of the category. They collaborate with the retailer's merchandising team to analyze market trends, consumer insights, sales data, and competitor activities to develop category plans and initiatives. The Category Captain also provides guidance on pricing, promotions, shelf placement, packaging, and product innovation within the category. By leveraging their expertise and industry knowledge, Category Captains aim to establish themselves as trusted partners and advisors to the retailer, driving mutual success and growth. The role of a Category Captain is particularly significant in collaborative partnerships between retailers and suppliers, where both parties work together to optimize the performance of specific categories and drive category growth. The Category Captain concept fosters collaboration, data sharing, and joint decision-making between retailers and suppliers, ultimately benefiting both parties and delivering value to customers.

Category Management

Category management is a strategic approach and business process used by retailers and wholesalers to effectively manage and maximize the performance of product categories within their stores or across their organization. It involves analyzing sales data, market trends, and customer insights to develop strategies for product assortment, pricing, promotion, and placement within each category. The goal of category management is to optimize sales, profitability, and customer satisfaction by ensuring the right products are available in the right quantities, at the right time, and at the right price. Category management includes activities such as category analysis, assortment planning, vendor management, merchandising strategy, promotional planning, and performance tracking. It requires collaboration and data sharing between retailers and suppliers to make informed decisions about product selection, pricing, marketing, and inventory management. By implementing effective category management practices, retailers and wholesalers can enhance the shopping experience, drive customer loyalty, increase sales, and strengthen their competitive position in the market.

CFR (Cost and Freight)

CFR, or Cost and Freight, is an international trade term (Incoterm) that specifies that the seller is responsible for the cost of goods and the freight charges to deliver the goods to a named port of destination. Under CFR terms, the seller arranges and pays for transportation to the port of destination, provides the necessary export documentation, and assumes the risk until the goods are loaded onto the vessel. Once the goods are on board, the risk transfers to the buyer. The buyer is responsible for any further transportation, customs clearance, import duties, and other costs associated with receiving the goods at the destination port. CFR terms are commonly used in international trade, particularly for bulk commodities and ocean shipments. They provide clarity and define the obligations and responsibilities of the buyer and seller in terms of costs and logistics. By using CFR terms, both parties can understand and agree on the specific conditions and costs involved in the transportation and delivery of goods, facilitating smooth trade transactions and minimizing disputes or misunderstandings.


Chargebacks are financial transactions that occur when a retailer or wholesaler disputes a payment to a supplier or vendor, resulting in a deduction from the supplier's account or a request for reimbursement. Chargebacks are typically initiated when the retailer believes that the supplier has not met certain contractual obligations, such as late delivery, incorrect or damaged goods, pricing discrepancies, non-compliance with industry standards, or violations of agreed-upon terms and conditions. The retailer may offset the disputed amount against future payments or request a direct reimbursement from the supplier. Chargebacks help retailers protect their financial interests, ensure supplier accountability, and maintain quality standards. For suppliers, chargebacks can have financial implications, affecting their cash flow and profitability. Managing chargebacks requires clear communication, documentation, and dispute resolution mechanisms between retailers and suppliers to address any issues and prevent recurring problems. It is crucial for retailers and suppliers to establish clear expectations, communicate effectively, and collaborate on resolving disputes to maintain a healthy and sustainable business relationship.

Child SKU

A Child SKU, also known as a variant or sub-SKU, refers to a specific product variation or version derived from a parent SKU. A SKU, or Stock Keeping Unit, is a unique identifier used to track and manage inventory for individual products. A Child SKU represents a specific attribute or variation of the parent product, such as color, size, style, or packaging. It allows retailers and wholesalers to differentiate and track multiple versions of a product within their inventory system. Child SKUs often have distinct barcode or identification codes, enabling accurate inventory management, order fulfillment, and tracking of sales performance. By utilizing Child SKUs, retailers and wholesalers can effectively manage and sell products with different attributes, offer a wider range of choices to customers, and gain insights into the popularity and demand for specific product variations. Child SKUs play a crucial role in inventory accuracy, sales analysis, and merchandising strategies, facilitating efficient operations and meeting customer preferences.


CMO stands for Chief Merchandising Officer, a senior executive role in the retail/wholesale industry responsible for overseeing the merchandising strategy and operations of a company. The CMO plays a critical role in driving product assortment, pricing, promotion, and overall merchandising strategies to meet the company's business objectives. They collaborate with cross-functional teams, including buying, planning, marketing, and operations, to ensure the right products are available in the right quantities, at the right time, and at the right price. The CMO analyzes market trends, customer insights, sales data, and competitor activities to develop merchandising plans, optimize sales performance, and enhance the overall customer experience. They are responsible for building strong vendor relationships, negotiating favorable terms, and managing supplier partnerships. The CMO also oversees the development of promotional campaigns, visual merchandising strategies, store layout planning, and pricing strategies. By effectively leading the merchandising function, the CMO contributes to the growth, profitability, and competitiveness of the retail/wholesale organization.

COGS (Cost of Goods Sold)

COGS, or Cost of Goods Sold, is a financial metric that represents the direct costs associated with producing or purchasing the goods or products sold by a retailer or wholesaler. It includes the cost of materials, manufacturing or procurement expenses, labor costs, freight or shipping charges, and any other directly attributable costs. COGS is a key component in calculating the gross profit margin and evaluating the profitability of a business. By subtracting the COGS from the net sales revenue, a retailer or wholesaler can determine the gross profit. COGS is an essential metric for inventory valuation, financial reporting, and performance analysis. It helps businesses understand the direct costs involved in producing or acquiring products, evaluate pricing strategies, assess product profitability, and make informed decisions about inventory management, procurement, and pricing. Accurate tracking and recording of COGS is crucial for financial transparency, cost control, and overall business profitability.


COO stands for Chief Operating Officer, a senior executive role in the retail/wholesale industry responsible for overseeing the day-to-day operations and efficiency of a company. The COO works closely with other top executives, such as the CEO and CFO, to develop and execute operational strategies, optimize business processes, and ensure effective resource allocation. The COO's responsibilities may include supply chain management, logistics, distribution, store operations, customer service, and IT systems. They focus on streamlining operations, improving productivity, reducing costs, and enhancing the overall operational performance of the organization. The COO collaborates with cross-functional teams, sets performance targets, monitors key performance indicators (KPIs), and drives continuous improvement initiatives. They play a critical role in aligning operational activities with the company's strategic objectives, ensuring efficient and effective execution, and delivering a positive customer experience. The COO's expertise in operational excellence and process optimization contributes to the success and competitiveness of the retail/wholesale organization.


A collection refers to a curated group or assortment of products designed and marketed together as a cohesive unit. Collections are often developed around a specific theme, style, season, or target customer segment. Retailers and wholesalers create collections to offer customers a comprehensive selection of products that complement each other in terms of design, functionality, or purpose. Collections enable retailers to tell a story, evoke a specific lifestyle or aesthetic, and provide a curated shopping experience. They are commonly used in fashion, home decor, and lifestyle industries. Each collection may include various product categories, styles, colors, and sizes that are carefully selected to cater to the target market's preferences and needs. Retailers and wholesalers invest in product development, sourcing, marketing, and merchandising activities to create and promote collections effectively. By offering curated collections, businesses can differentiate themselves, meet customer expectations, and drive sales by providing customers with a cohesive and compelling product offering.

Color (Code)

Color codes are standardized systems used to identify and differentiate specific colors. Color codes provide a consistent and universal way of referring to colors, ensuring accuracy and precision in color communication across different stages of the supply chain, from product development to manufacturing, marketing, and sales. Different color systems and codes exist, such as Pantone, RGB (Red-Green-Blue), CMYK (Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Key), and Hex codes. These codes assign unique numeric or alphanumeric values to each color, allowing easy identification and reproduction of specific shades or hues. Color codes are essential for maintaining color consistency, quality control, and accurate color matching in various applications, such as fabric dyeing, printing, packaging, and visual merchandising. By using color codes, retailers and wholesalers can ensure consistent brand presentation, meet customer expectations for color accuracy, and minimize discrepancies or variations in color appearance across different products, materials, or media.


Commitment refers to a pledge or obligation undertaken by a company or individual to fulfill certain responsibilities or meet specific requirements. It signifies a dedication to achieving set goals, delivering promised results, or honoring contractual obligations. Commitments can encompass various aspects, such as customer satisfaction, quality assurance, timely delivery, ethical practices, and financial commitments. Maintaining commitment is crucial for building trust with stakeholders, fostering long-term relationships, and ensuring the success and reputation of a business.


Comps, short for "comparables," are a common term used in the retail/wholesale industry to refer to comparable sales figures used for performance analysis. These figures provide a basis for evaluating the financial performance of a particular store, region, or company by comparing it to similar entities within the industry. Comps typically include metrics like sales revenue, same-store sales growth, customer traffic, average transaction value, and other relevant key performance indicators. By analyzing comps, retailers can assess their market position, identify trends, make informed business decisions, and benchmark their performance against competitors.


A component refers to a distinct part or element that contributes to the composition or functionality of a finished product. Components can vary depending on the industry and specific product category, ranging from physical parts like electronics, fasteners, or packaging materials to intangible elements such as software modules or branding components. Effective management of components is crucial for supply chain operations, including procurement, inventory management, production planning, quality control, and product customization. Efficient sourcing, tracking, and integration of components contribute to the overall product quality, cost optimization, and customer satisfaction.


Consignment is a business arrangement commonly used in the retail/wholesale industry, where a supplier or manufacturer (the consignor) provides goods to a retailer (the consignee) who agrees to sell them on the consignor's behalf. The consignee retains possession of the goods until they are sold, at which point they share a portion of the proceeds with the consignor. This arrangement allows the consignor to distribute their products without requiring an upfront purchase from the retailer, reducing financial risk. It also enables the consignee to offer a wider range of products without investing heavily in inventory. Consignment agreements typically outline the terms, responsibilities, payment arrangements, and duration of the consignment arrangement.


Consolidation refers to the process of combining or merging multiple entities, such as stores, warehouses, or distribution centers, into a unified operation. Consolidation is often undertaken to streamline operations, reduce costs, improve efficiency, and optimize resources. It involves centralizing functions, systems, and management structures, eliminating redundancies, and leveraging economies of scale. Consolidation efforts can include consolidating inventory, merging administrative functions, integrating IT systems, and harmonizing procurement processes. Successful consolidation initiatives can lead to improved supply chain management, enhanced customer service, increased profitability, and a stronger market position.


Construction typically refers to the physical development or modification of retail spaces, warehouses, distribution centers, or other facilities. It involves activities such as building, remodeling, renovating, or expanding structures to meet the specific needs of the business. Construction projects require careful planning, coordination, and adherence to local regulations and building codes. They may involve architectural design, site preparation, construction management, procurement of materials, installation of fixtures and equipment, and implementation of safety measures. Effective construction management ensures that facilities are conducive to business operations, provide an optimal customer experience, and meet the company's functional and aesthetic requirements.


A contract is a legally binding agreement between two or more parties in the retail/wholesale industry. Contracts establish the rights, responsibilities, and obligations of the involved parties and provide a framework for conducting business transactions. In the retail/wholesale context, contracts can cover a wide range of agreements, such as supplier contracts, lease agreements, distribution agreements, service contracts, or employment contracts. They typically outline terms and conditions, pricing, delivery schedules, performance expectations, dispute resolution mechanisms, and other relevant provisions. Contracts are essential for ensuring clarity, minimizing risks, protecting the interests of all parties, and providing a basis for legal recourse in case of non-compliance or disputes.


Core generally refers to the essential or fundamental aspects of a business. It encompasses the primary functions, values, products, or services that define a company's identity and strategic focus. Identifying and understanding the core aspects of a business is crucial for effective decision-making, resource allocation, and competitive positioning. The core can refer to various elements, including core products or offerings, core competencies or capabilities, core values or mission, core markets or customer segments, and core processes or systems. By emphasizing and leveraging the core, companies can build a distinct competitive advantage, enhance brand equity, and ensure long-term sustainability and success.


Costing refers to the process of determining and analyzing the costs associated with producing, distributing, and selling products or services in the retail/wholesale industry. Costing involves the identification, classification, measurement, and allocation of various cost components, such as raw materials, labor, overhead expenses, transportation, packaging, and marketing costs. Accurate costing is essential for pricing decisions, profit analysis, budgeting, cost control, and performance evaluation. Costing methods can vary, including standard costing, activity-based costing, or marginal costing, depending on the specific industry, product complexity, and cost structure. Implementing effective costing practices enables companies to optimize profitability, identify cost-saving opportunities, and make informed decisions regarding pricing strategies, product mix, and operational efficiency.

Counter Sample

A counter sample refers to a sample or prototype of a product or component provided by a supplier or manufacturer to a buyer or retailer for evaluation and approval. Counter samples are typically created based on specifications or design requirements provided by the buyer. They allow the buyer to assess the quality, features, functionality, and adherence to specifications of the product before placing an order or entering into a production agreement. Counter samples play a crucial role in the product development process, ensuring that the final product meets the buyer's expectations, regulatory requirements, and quality standards. The approval of counter samples often precedes mass production or the commencement of a business relationship between the buyer and the supplier/manufacturer.


Cube refers to the measurement of the total volume or capacity of a product, package, or shipping container. Cubic measurements are calculated by multiplying the length, width, and height of an object or packaging. The cube measurement is essential for determining space utilization, optimizing transportation or warehousing costs, and complying with weight and size restrictions imposed by carriers or regulatory authorities. Accurate cube measurements enable companies to determine the number of units that can fit in a given space, calculate shipping costs based on dimensional weight, and plan effective packaging strategies to minimize wasted space and maximize efficiency throughout the supply chain.

Custom Clearance

Custom clearance refers to the process of complying with customs regulations and obtaining necessary approvals, permits, or documentation to import or export goods across international borders. Custom clearance involves fulfilling legal and administrative requirements, such as completing customs declarations, providing accurate product descriptions, determining the appropriate import duties or taxes, and adhering to import/export restrictions or regulations. Effective custom clearance ensures compliance with trade laws, facilitates smooth movement of goods, minimizes delays, and mitigates the risk of penalties or confiscation. It often involves coordination with customs agents or brokers, transportation providers, regulatory authorities, and compliance experts to navigate the complexities of international trade.

CVS (Available to Sell)

CVS, short for "Available to Sell," is a term used to refer to the quantity of a particular product that is currently available for sale or in stock. CVS is an important inventory management metric that helps retailers monitor stock levels, plan replenishment, and optimize inventory turnover. It takes into account factors such as current inventory levels, incoming shipments, outgoing orders, and sales forecasts to determine the quantity of goods that can be sold to customers. Maintaining an accurate CVS allows retailers to prevent stockouts, avoid overstock situations, ensure product availability, and meet customer demand while minimizing carrying costs and obsolescence.

Distro (PO)

Distro, short for "Distribution," typically refers to a purchase order (PO) specifically intended for distribution purposes. A distro PO is created when a retailer or wholesaler places an order with a supplier or manufacturer for the purpose of distributing the received goods to multiple locations or channels. Distro POs involve coordination and planning to ensure accurate allocation and timely delivery of products to different destinations or sales outlets. They may include specific instructions regarding product quantities, packaging, labeling, and shipping requirements to facilitate efficient distribution operations. Effective management of distro POs is essential for supply chain coordination, inventory management, and meeting the demand of various sales channels or geographic regions.


Division refers to a distinct unit or segment within a company that operates independently and focuses on specific product categories, markets, geographic regions, or customer segments. Divisions are often established to enhance operational efficiency, support specialized expertise, facilitate market responsiveness, and streamline decision-making. Each division may have its own management structure, goals, strategies, and profit and loss accountability. Divisions allow companies to adapt to diverse customer needs, allocate resources effectively, and capture opportunities in different market segments while maintaining overall synergies and strategic alignment.

Dog (Bad Style)

The term "dog" is commonly used to refer to a product, style, or category that performs poorly and generates low sales or profits. It represents an underperforming or unpopular item within a retailer's assortment. Identifying dogs is essential for effective merchandise planning, inventory management, and profitability analysis. Retailers often analyze sales data, customer feedback, market trends, and financial indicators to identify dogs and make informed decisions about markdowns, product discontinuation, promotional strategies, or assortment adjustments. Managing and minimizing the impact of dogs is crucial to optimize inventory turnover, allocate resources efficiently, and maximize profitability in a competitive retail environment.


Domestic refers to activities or operations that are confined to a specific country or within national boundaries. It encompasses business activities such as manufacturing, distribution, sales, or sourcing that occur within a single country's market. Domestic operations may involve serving local customers, complying with national regulations and laws, or leveraging country-specific advantages or resources. Retailers may have domestic and international operations, and distinguishing between domestic and international activities is essential for business planning, logistics management, regulatory compliance, and understanding the impact of global market dynamics on domestic operations.

Dropped (Drop)

The term "dropped" or "drop" refers to the act of discontinuing a product, style, or category from a retailer's assortment or inventory. When a product is dropped, it is no longer available for purchase or replenishment. Retailers often make drop decisions based on factors such as poor sales performance, low demand, changing market trends, product obsolescence, or strategic realignment. Dropping products allows retailers to free up space, streamline their assortment, focus on more profitable items, and allocate resources effectively. It is a critical element of merchandise planning and inventory management to ensure a dynamic and competitive product offering that meets customer preferences and generates optimal profitability.

Due Date

The due date refers to the specified deadline or target date for completing a task, fulfilling an order, delivering goods, or making a payment. It represents the timeframe within which a particular action or obligation is expected to be accomplished. Due dates are crucial for effective planning, scheduling, and coordination within the supply chain. They ensure timely fulfillment of customer orders, adherence to production schedules, and proper management of cash flow and financial obligations. By tracking and adhering to due dates, companies can enhance customer satisfaction, avoid penalties, maintain operational efficiency, and foster trust and reliability in their business relationships.


EDI, short for "Electronic Data Interchange," is a technology and communication standard widely used in the retail/wholesale industry for the electronic exchange of business documents, such as purchase orders, invoices, shipping notices, and inventory updates. EDI enables the seamless transfer of structured data between different information systems, facilitating efficient and automated business transactions. It eliminates the need for manual data entry, reduces errors, improves data accuracy, and accelerates the order-to-cash cycle. EDI integration enables companies to collaborate with trading partners, streamline supply chain processes, and enhance operational efficiency by automating data interchange and integrating systems across the supply chain.

ELC (Estimated Landed Cost)

Estimated Landed Cost (ELC) refers to the projected total cost of a product, including the purchase price, transportation expenses, customs duties, taxes, insurance, and other costs incurred until the product reaches its final destination. ELC provides a comprehensive estimate of the expenses associated with sourcing or importing goods. It helps companies evaluate profitability, make informed sourcing decisions, set appropriate pricing strategies, and manage cash flow. Calculating the ELC involves considering factors such as product cost, transportation costs, customs fees, currency exchange rates, and other related expenses. Accurate estimation of the ELC enables companies to optimize sourcing strategies, negotiate favorable terms with suppliers, and maintain competitive pricing while accounting for all costs incurred in the supply chain.

End Date

The end date refers to the designated or anticipated date when a particular event, promotion, campaign, contract, or project is scheduled to conclude or terminate. The end date signifies the completion of a defined period or scope of work. It is essential for planning, resource allocation, and evaluating the effectiveness of initiatives. The end date provides a clear timeframe for decision-making, performance assessment, and determining the success or failure of a specific endeavor. Effective management of end dates allows companies to meet deadlines, measure results, adjust strategies, and transition to subsequent activities or initiatives.


ERB, short for "Electronic Retail Book," is a term used to refer to a digital or electronic system that stores and manages information related to retail operations. ERB systems typically include data on product assortments, pricing, promotions, inventory levels, sales performance, and customer information. They provide retailers with real-time visibility into their operations, enabling them to make data-driven decisions, monitor key performance indicators, and optimize business processes. ERBs can integrate with other systems like point-of-sale (POS), customer relationship management (CRM), and supply chain management (SCM) to facilitate seamless data exchange and enable comprehensive retail management.


ERP, short for "Enterprise Resource Planning," is a comprehensive software system used to integrate and manage various core business functions, including finance, human resources, supply chain, sales, and inventory management. ERP systems provide a centralized platform for data storage, process automation, and cross-functional collaboration. They enable companies to streamline operations, improve efficiency, enhance data accuracy, and make informed decisions based on real-time information. ERP systems typically include modules for different functional areas and can be customized to suit specific business requirements. Implementing an ERP system empowers retailers with better visibility, control, and integration of their operations, enabling effective resource allocation, cost optimization, and improved customer service.

Ethical Sourcing

Ethical sourcing refers to the practice of procuring goods or services from suppliers or manufacturers who operate in a socially and environmentally responsible manner. Ethical sourcing focuses on ensuring fair labor practices, safe working conditions, environmental sustainability, and compliance with legal and ethical standards throughout the supply chain. It involves thorough supplier evaluation, code of conduct implementation, audits, and monitoring mechanisms to ensure ethical standards are upheld. Ethical sourcing initiatives aim to protect the rights of workers, reduce environmental impact, promote transparency, and mitigate reputational risks. By prioritizing ethical sourcing, companies demonstrate their commitment to social responsibility and sustainability, meeting consumer expectations and contributing to positive social and environmental change.

EOM (End of Month)

EOM, short for "End of Month," is a term used to refer to the specific date or period marking the conclusion of a calendar month. EOM is often used as a reference point for various business activities, including financial reporting, sales analysis, inventory management, target setting, and performance evaluation. EOM is important for capturing and summarizing monthly data, identifying trends, measuring progress, and comparing performance against established goals or benchmarks. It provides a regular interval for reviewing business performance, making strategic decisions, and initiating planning activities for the upcoming month.

Exchange Rate

Exchange rate refers to the value at which one currency can be exchanged for another. Exchange rates fluctuate based on economic factors, market conditions, and the relative strength of currencies. In international retail/wholesale operations, exchange rates play a significant role in pricing, cost calculations, profit margins, and financial planning. Fluctuations in exchange rates can impact import/export costs, profitability, and the competitiveness of products in international markets. Retailers engaged in cross-border trade closely monitor exchange rates, employ risk management strategies, and utilize financial tools to mitigate the potential adverse effects of exchange rate volatility and optimize their global operations.

Execution Date

Execution date refers to the designated date or timeframe when a particular task, project, agreement, or process is scheduled to commence or be implemented. It represents the initiation or start point for a specific action or activity. The execution date is crucial for effective planning, resource allocation, and coordination within the supply chain. It ensures that activities are initiated promptly, project timelines are met, and goals are achieved within the defined schedule. Tracking and adhering to execution dates enables companies to maintain operational efficiency, meet customer expectations, and achieve desired outcomes in a timely manner.

Ext Cost

Ext Cost, short for "Extended Cost," is a term used to refer to the total cost of a product or order, considering all associated expenses beyond the purchase price. Ext Cost includes additional costs such as transportation, handling fees, customs duties, taxes, packaging, and other related expenses. It provides a comprehensive view of the actual cost incurred to acquire or produce goods and enables accurate cost analysis, pricing decisions, and profitability assessment. Retailers use Ext Cost to evaluate supplier pricing, negotiate terms, estimate landed costs, determine appropriate markup or margin, and assess the financial impact of sourcing decisions. Accurate calculation of Ext Cost ensures effective cost management, supports strategic sourcing, and enables informed financial planning and decision-making.

Ext Price

Ext Price, short for "Extended Price," is a term used to refer to the total price of a product or order, including any additional charges or fees beyond the base price. Ext Price takes into account factors such as taxes, shipping costs, discounts, and other applicable charges. It represents the actual amount that a customer or retailer pays for a product or an entire order. Ext Price is important for accurate pricing, cost analysis, and financial planning. Retailers calculate Ext Price to determine the profitability of products, assess the impact of pricing decisions, and manage margins effectively. By considering all costs associated with a transaction, retailers can ensure accurate pricing and make informed decisions regarding pricing strategies, promotions, and profit optimization.

Factory Assignment

Factory Assignment refers to the process of designating a specific factory or manufacturing facility to produce a particular product or category for a retailer or brand. It involves identifying a suitable manufacturing partner with the necessary capabilities, capacity, and expertise to meet the retailer's requirements. Factory Assignment includes evaluating factors such as production capacity, quality standards, cost efficiency, lead times, and compliance with ethical and environmental practices. Retailers carefully select and assign factories based on their ability to deliver products that meet quality standards, pricing objectives, and supply chain requirements. Effective Factory Assignment helps ensure a reliable and consistent supply of products, maintain quality control, optimize production efficiency, and foster long-term partnerships with manufacturing partners.

FCA (Free Carrier)

FCA, short for "Free Carrier," is an international trade term used to define the seller's delivery obligations and responsibilities in a transaction. In an FCA arrangement, the seller fulfills their obligations by delivering the goods to a named carrier or a specific location designated by the buyer. The risk of loss or damage to the goods transfers from the seller to the buyer at the specified delivery point. The buyer is responsible for arranging and paying for transportation from the delivery point to the final destination. FCA is commonly used in multimodal transport, such as sea or air freight, where goods pass through multiple modes of transportation. The use of FCA terms provides clarity and defines the division of responsibilities between the buyer and the seller in an international transaction, ensuring smooth logistics operations and mitigating potential disputes or misunderstandings.

Finished Goods

Finished Goods refer to products that have completed the manufacturing or production process and are ready for sale or distribution to customers. Finished Goods are in their final form and have undergone all necessary processing, packaging, and quality control measures. They are fully assembled, labeled, and packaged, meeting the desired specifications and quality standards. Finished Goods are typically stored in warehouses or distribution centers until they are sold or shipped to retail locations or end customers. Retailers and wholesalers maintain inventories of Finished Goods to meet customer demand, facilitate prompt order fulfillment, and support efficient distribution operations. Effective management of Finished Goods inventory ensures product availability, minimizes stockouts, and enables timely delivery of products to customers.

Finished Product

Finished Product refers to a fully completed and packaged item that is ready for sale to end consumers. It is the final version of a product that has undergone all manufacturing processes, quality control checks, and packaging requirements. Finished Products are typically labeled, barcoded, and prepared for retail display or shipment to customers. Retailers stock and sell Finished Products in their stores, online platforms, or through distribution channels to meet consumer demand. The availability and presentation of high-quality Finished Products are critical for satisfying customer needs, driving sales, and maintaining brand reputation. Effective management of Finished Product inventory, including forecasting, replenishment, and merchandising strategies, helps retailers optimize sales, minimize excess stock, and maximize profitability.

Fiscal Year

Fiscal Year refers to a 12-month accounting period used by a company for financial reporting and planning purposes. The Fiscal Year may or may not align with the calendar year and is chosen by the company to best suit its business cycle and reporting needs. During the Fiscal Year, a company records its financial transactions, prepares financial statements, analyzes performance, and sets financial goals. The Fiscal Year provides a consistent time frame for measuring financial performance, budgeting, and tax reporting. Retailers use the Fiscal Year to evaluate sales performance, track expenses, assess profitability, and make informed financial decisions. By aligning their operations and reporting with a designated Fiscal Year, retailers can effectively plan, monitor, and control their financial activities, facilitating accurate financial analysis and enabling strategic decision-making.

Fit Sample

Fit Sample refers to a prototype or sample garment created during the product development process to assess the fit, sizing, and overall design of a clothing item. Fit Samples are used to evaluate how the garment drapes, feels, and fits on a human body, ensuring it meets the desired specifications and delivers the intended aesthetic and comfort. Fit Samples undergo rigorous testing, fitting sessions, and adjustments before finalizing the pattern and approving it for mass production. Retailers and brands utilize Fit Samples to ensure that their clothing items meet customer expectations in terms of fit, comfort, and style. By assessing and refining Fit Samples, retailers can minimize fit-related returns, enhance customer satisfaction, and maintain consistent quality standards in their apparel offerings.


FOB, short for "Free on Board," is an international trade term used to determine the point at which ownership and risk transfer from the seller to the buyer in an international transaction. In an FOB arrangement, the seller is responsible for delivering the goods to a specified port or location and covering the transportation costs and export duties up to that point. Once the goods are loaded on board the vessel or carrier, the risk and ownership transfer to the buyer, who becomes responsible for the shipment, insurance, import duties, and transportation from the port of origin to the final destination. FOB terms are commonly used in international shipping and help define the parties' rights, responsibilities, and liabilities during the transportation of goods. Clear FOB terms ensure that both parties understand their obligations and facilitate smooth international trade operations.

Forwarder Cargo Receipt (FCR)

Forwarder Cargo Receipt (FCR) is a document issued by a freight forwarder to acknowledge the receipt of goods from a shipper or consignor for transportation and export. It serves as evidence that the forwarder has received the goods and has taken responsibility for their shipment. The FCR contains essential information such as the description of goods, their quantity, packaging, marks, and other relevant details. It is used in international logistics to facilitate the smooth movement of goods, including customs clearance, cargo handling, and documentation processes. The FCR acts as a receipt for the shipper, a proof of contract between the forwarder and the shipper, and a transfer document for subsequent carriers or parties involved in the transportation chain. It helps ensure proper tracking, accountability, and security of goods during transit. FCR plays a crucial role in international trade by providing accurate documentation, verifying the condition of goods, and ensuring compliance with shipping and customs regulations.


Freight refers to the goods or cargo transported by various modes of transportation, such as ships, airplanes, trucks, or trains. It encompasses the physical movement of goods from one location to another as part of the supply chain. Freight can include raw materials, components, finished products, or any other items being transported for commercial purposes. Freight services are provided by shipping lines, airlines, trucking companies, freight forwarders, and logistics providers. The cost of freight is influenced by factors such as distance, weight, volume, mode of transportation, shipping terms, and additional services required, such as insurance or customs clearance. Effective management of freight logistics, including carrier selection, route optimization, tracking, and coordination, is crucial for ensuring timely delivery, minimizing transportation costs, and optimizing supply chain efficiency.


GMM, short for "General Merchandise Manager," refers to a key executive position within the retail industry responsible for overseeing a specific product category or department. The GMM is typically responsible for the overall strategic direction, assortment planning, vendor relationships, pricing, inventory management, and financial performance of their assigned category or department. They work closely with buyers, merchandisers, and other stakeholders to develop and execute merchandising strategies that drive sales, profitability, and customer satisfaction. The GMM analyzes market trends, customer preferences, and competitive landscapes to identify opportunities, make data-driven decisions, and optimize the product assortment. They collaborate with cross-functional teams, including marketing, operations, and finance, to align merchandising strategies with overall business objectives. GMMs play a critical role in retail organizations by shaping the product offerings, curating a compelling shopping experience, and driving business growth within their designated categories.

Goods Receipt

Goods Receipt refers to the process of formally acknowledging the receipt of goods from a supplier or vendor. It involves inspecting, verifying, and recording the quantity, quality, and condition of the received goods against the purchase order or contract. Goods Receipt is an essential step in the procurement process and serves as a basis for further actions, such as payment processing, inventory update, and quality control. By conducting Goods Receipt, retailers ensure that the received goods match the ordered specifications, meet quality standards, and are ready for use or further distribution. Accurate and timely Goods Receipt helps maintain supply chain transparency, facilitates efficient inventory management, minimizes discrepancies, and ensures that retailers only pay for the goods they have received and accepted.


Group refers to a collection of stores or outlets operated by a single organization under a common brand or ownership. A group of stores can include various formats, such as flagship stores, department stores, specialty stores, or online platforms. Groups may focus on specific product categories or cater to different market segments. Retail groups leverage economies of scale, centralized operations, and shared resources to optimize efficiency, enhance branding, and drive profitability. They often have centralized buying, marketing, and supply chain functions to ensure consistent customer experiences and maximize operational synergies across their store network. Groups may also have dedicated management teams responsible for overseeing the performance, expansion, and strategic direction of the individual stores within the group. By operating as a group, retailers can achieve economies of scale, leverage their collective market presence, and adapt to changing consumer trends more effectively.

Gross Profit

Gross Profit refers to the revenue remaining after deducting the cost of goods sold (COGS) from the net sales. It represents the initial profitability of a retailer's core operations before accounting for other operating expenses such as rent, salaries, marketing, and administrative costs. Gross Profit reflects the efficiency of a retailer's pricing, sourcing, inventory management, and cost control. A high gross profit margin indicates that a retailer is effectively managing its cost of goods and generating sufficient revenue to cover other operating expenses. It also provides insight into the competitiveness and profitability of the product assortment. Retailers monitor Gross Profit as a key performance indicator (KPI) to assess the financial health of their business, evaluate pricing strategies, negotiate with suppliers, and make informed decisions regarding product assortment, promotions, and overall profitability.


Hierarchy refers to the organizational structure or categorization of products, departments, or functions within a retail organization. It represents the levels of authority, reporting relationships, and differentiation of roles and responsibilities. Hierarchy helps establish clarity, accountability, and effective communication within the organization. In retail, hierarchy can be observed at different levels, such as corporate hierarchy, department hierarchy, and product hierarchy. Corporate hierarchy encompasses senior leadership, executive teams, and various departments responsible for overall business strategy, operations, finance, marketing, and other functions. Department hierarchy defines the reporting structure within specific departments, such as merchandising, operations, marketing, or finance. Product hierarchy involves categorizing and organizing products based on various attributes, such as product category, brand, SKU, or price point. Hierarchy facilitates decision-making, workflow management, and coordination of activities across different levels and functions of the retail organization. It helps ensure clear lines of authority, optimal resource allocation, and efficient execution of business strategies.


Hold refers to a temporary suspension or delay placed on the release, sale, or further processing of goods or orders. Retailers may put products or orders on hold for various reasons, such as quality concerns, pricing discrepancies, legal issues, stock discrepancies, pending approvals, or customer-specific requirements. Placing items on hold allows retailers to address the identified issues, resolve discrepancies, or seek additional information before proceeding with the normal course of action. Holds help retailers ensure that only compliant, accurate, and market-ready products are released for sale or distribution, minimizing potential risks, customer dissatisfaction, and operational disruptions. Effective hold management processes, including clear communication, documentation, and resolution mechanisms, are crucial for maintaining product quality, regulatory compliance, and customer satisfaction.


HTS, short for "Harmonized Tariff Schedule," is an international standard for classifying traded products based on their characteristics and intended use. It is a system of product codes used by customs authorities to determine applicable import duties, taxes, and regulations for each item. The HTS is globally recognized and provides a consistent framework for categorizing products in international trade. Each product is assigned a specific HTS code, which enables customs authorities to determine the appropriate duty rates and regulatory requirements for that item. Importers and exporters must accurately classify their products according to the HTS to ensure compliance with customs regulations, determine landed costs, and facilitate smooth customs clearance. HTS classification also helps in statistical reporting, trade data analysis, and trade policy formulation. Retailers and wholesalers rely on the HTS codes to understand the cost implications of importing or exporting products, estimate total landed costs, and ensure compliance with international trade regulations.


ID, short for "Identification," refers to a unique identifier or code assigned to a product, order, customer, or any other entity for identification and tracking purposes. IDs are used to differentiate and manage various elements within the retail business. For products, an ID can be a Universal Product Code (UPC), European Article Number (EAN), or any proprietary code used to identify a specific item. Order IDs are assigned to individual orders for tracking, fulfillment, and customer service purposes. Customer IDs are used to identify individual customers and manage their preferences, purchase history, and loyalty programs. IDs provide a reliable and standardized way of identifying, tracking, and managing different elements within the retail ecosystem. They support efficient inventory management, order processing, customer service, and data analysis, enabling retailers to make informed decisions, personalize customer experiences, and optimize business operations.


Import refers to the act of bringing goods or products into a country from another country for the purpose of sale or distribution. Imports can include raw materials, components, finished products, or any other items sourced from foreign suppliers or manufacturers. Importing involves complying with customs regulations, including import duties, taxes, and documentation requirements. Retailers import products to diversify their offerings, access unique goods, meet customer demand, or take advantage of cost advantages in other countries. Importing requires effective supply chain management, logistics coordination, and compliance with import regulations. Retailers must understand import processes, maintain proper documentation, and work with customs brokers or agents to facilitate smooth customs clearance and timely availability of imported goods. Importing allows retailers to expand their product assortment, cater to diverse customer needs, and contribute to economic globalization.

In Stock

In Stock refers to the availability of products or inventory for immediate sale or distribution. When a product is marked as "In Stock," it means that it is physically present in the retailer's warehouse, store, or distribution center and ready to be sold or shipped. Retailers continuously monitor inventory levels to ensure that popular products remain in stock to meet customer demand. Maintaining adequate stock levels is crucial for maximizing sales opportunities, fulfilling customer orders promptly, and preventing lost sales due to stockouts. Retailers utilize inventory management systems, demand forecasting, and replenishment strategies to optimize inventory levels, minimize stockouts, and avoid excess inventory. By effectively managing in-stock levels, retailers can provide a seamless shopping experience, improve customer satisfaction, and capture revenue opportunities.

Inline vs Endcap

Inline vs Endcap refers to two different display strategies within a retail store. Inline refers to the placement of products or merchandise along the regular shelving or display fixtures within the store. These products are integrated into the overall store layout and are surrounded by other similar or complementary items. On the other hand, an endcap refers to a standalone display unit or fixture located at the end of an aisle or a prominent position in the store. Endcaps are often used to highlight specific products, promotions, or seasonal items and attract customers' attention. They offer increased visibility and create a focal point within the store. Inline displays are ideal for presenting a wide range of products and categories, while endcaps provide a strategic opportunity to showcase featured or high-margin items. Retailers consider factors such as product visibility, sales goals, store layout, and customer traffic when deciding whether to allocate products to inline or endcap displays. Both inline and endcap displays play important roles in visual merchandising, product promotion, and enhancing the overall shopping experience.


Inventory refers to the stock of products or goods that a retailer holds for sale or distribution. It represents the assortment and quantity of products available within the retail ecosystem. Inventory includes raw materials, work-in-progress items, and finished products. Retailers manage inventory to meet customer demand, support sales operations, and ensure product availability. Inventory can be stored in warehouses, distribution centers, retail stores, or held by suppliers as consignment stock. Effective inventory management involves forecasting, procurement, replenishment, storage, and order fulfillment processes. Retailers strive to maintain an optimal balance of inventory to avoid stockouts or excess stock, optimize cash flow, minimize carrying costs, and maximize sales opportunities. Inventory accuracy, visibility, and control are critical for efficient supply chain operations, customer satisfaction, and overall business profitability.

Inventory Control

Inventory Control refers to the processes, systems, and strategies used to manage and maintain optimal inventory levels. It involves monitoring, tracking, and regulating the flow of goods throughout the supply chain to ensure that the right products are available in the right quantities at the right time. Inventory control encompasses activities such as demand forecasting, procurement, receiving, storage, order fulfillment, and inventory replenishment. Effective inventory control enables retailers to prevent stockouts, reduce excess inventory, optimize cash flow, and improve customer service. Retailers utilize inventory control systems, inventory management software, and automated technologies to track inventory levels, monitor sales patterns, analyze demand, and make informed inventory-related decisions. By implementing robust inventory control practices, retailers can enhance operational efficiency, minimize carrying costs, maximize sales opportunities, and maintain a competitive edge in the market.

Inventory Level

Inventory Level, refers to the quantity of products or goods available in a retailer's inventory at a given point in time. It represents the stock on hand and serves as a measure of how much inventory is available for sale or distribution. Inventory levels are dynamic and constantly change due to factors such as sales, replenishment, returns, and new stock additions. Maintaining optimal inventory levels is crucial for meeting customer demand, preventing stockouts, and minimizing excess stock. Retailers monitor inventory levels through regular stock counts, cycle counts, or through automated inventory management systems. By analyzing inventory levels, retailers can identify trends, plan inventory replenishment, optimize stock turnover, and ensure that they have the right amount of inventory to support sales operations and customer satisfaction.

Inventory Management

Inventory Management refers to the strategic planning, control, and optimization of inventory to meet customer demand while minimizing costs and maximizing profitability. It encompasses the processes, systems, and practices used to oversee the entire inventory lifecycle, including procurement, storage, replenishment, and order fulfillment. Effective inventory management involves demand forecasting, inventory control, replenishment strategies, and efficient supply chain operations. Retailers strive to achieve the right balance between inventory levels, sales velocity, and operational costs. They utilize inventory management software, analytics, and automation tools to gain visibility into inventory, streamline processes, and make data-driven decisions. By implementing robust inventory management practices, retailers can improve customer service, reduce stockouts, minimize excess inventory, optimize cash flow, and enhance overall business performance.


Invoice refers to a document issued by a seller to a buyer, itemizing the goods or services provided, the agreed-upon prices, and the payment terms. An invoice serves as a formal request for payment and establishes a legal obligation for the buyer to pay the seller. In retail, invoices are generated for various transactions, including wholesale purchases, supplier payments, and business-to-business sales. Invoices typically include details such as the seller's and buyer's contact information, item descriptions, quantities, prices, subtotal, taxes, shipping charges, and the total amount due. Invoices play a crucial role in financial record-keeping, inventory management, and accounts receivable management. They provide a clear record of transactions, facilitate payment processing, support audits and financial analysis, and help maintain accurate financial records. Retailers utilize invoicing systems or accounting software to generate and manage invoices efficiently, ensuring timely payment processing, accurate financial reporting, and strong vendor relationships.

Item Number

Item Number refers to a unique identifier or code assigned to a specific product or item within a retailer's inventory. It helps differentiate and track individual items, allowing retailers to manage and locate products efficiently. Item numbers can be alphanumeric codes or barcodes, such as Universal Product Codes (UPC) or European Article Numbers (EAN). Retailers assign item numbers to products during the inventory setup process or when new items are added to the assortment. Item numbers facilitate accurate inventory management, order processing, and stock replenishment. They support efficient product identification, pricing, labeling, and tracking throughout the supply chain. Retailers can use item numbers to analyze sales performance, monitor stock levels, generate reports, and make data-driven decisions regarding product assortment, pricing, and promotions. Item numbers play a vital role in inventory control, supply chain visibility, and operational efficiency within the retail industry.


Keystone refers to a pricing strategy where the selling price of a product is set at twice the wholesale cost or a 100% markup. It is commonly used by retailers to determine the retail price of products and establish a desired profit margin. The keystone pricing method simplifies pricing calculations and provides a consistent markup across different products or product categories. For example, if a retailer purchases a product from a supplier for $50, they would set the selling price at $100, resulting in a keystone markup of 100%. Retailers may adjust the keystone markup based on factors such as market demand, competition, product category, or pricing objectives. The keystone pricing strategy helps retailers maintain profitability, cover costs, and ensure a reasonable margin on their products. It simplifies pricing decisions and allows for easy communication with customers, as they can quickly calculate the retail price based on the wholesale cost. However, the keystone pricing method may not be suitable for all products or industries, and retailers may need to consider other pricing strategies to remain competitive and maximize profitability.

Key Price Point

Key Price Point refers to a specific price level or range that is strategically chosen to target a particular market segment or customer group. It represents the price at which a significant number of sales or customer preferences are observed. Key price points can vary depending on factors such as product category, market dynamics, competition, and customer demographics. Retailers identify key price points through market research, customer surveys, sales data analysis, and industry benchmarks. By understanding key price points, retailers can optimize their pricing strategies, product assortment, and promotions to cater to the preferences and purchasing power of their target customers. Key price points help retailers position their products competitively, maximize sales volume, and enhance customer satisfaction. They play a crucial role in pricing decisions, product development, and market positioning within the retail industry.

Ladder plan

Ladder plan refers to a merchandising and pricing strategy where products are arranged in a sequential order based on their price points or features. The ladder plan aims to guide customers through a range of products with increasing price points or added value, enabling them to make informed purchasing decisions based on their preferences and budget. The ladder plan can be observed in various retail settings, such as department stores, electronics stores, or apparel retailers. It involves strategically placing products on shelves or displays in a way that encourages customers to consider higher-priced options or premium features. The ladder plan helps retailers showcase the breadth of their product offerings, promote upselling or cross-selling, and cater to customers' varying needs and budgets. By implementing a ladder plan


A label refers to a piece of information attached or printed on a product or its packaging that provides essential details about the item. Labels typically include product names, descriptions, brand logos, barcodes, pricing, size, care instructions, and regulatory information. Labels serve multiple purposes, such as identifying and differentiating products, providing product information to consumers, facilitating inventory management and tracking, and ensuring compliance with labeling regulations. Retailers use labels to enhance product presentation, assist with pricing, enable efficient scanning and checkout processes, and enable traceability throughout the supply chain. Accurate and informative labels help consumers make informed purchasing decisions, improve product visibility, and contribute to overall customer satisfaction.

Late Delivery

Late delivery refers to a situation where goods or products are not delivered within the agreed-upon or expected timeframe. It occurs when the delivery of items is delayed beyond the scheduled or promised delivery date. Late deliveries can disrupt supply chains, impact customer satisfaction, and cause operational challenges for retailers. Common causes of late deliveries include logistical issues, transportation delays, production delays, customs clearance delays, weather conditions, or unforeseen circumstances. Retailers rely on timely deliveries to meet customer demand, restock inventory, fulfill orders, and maintain smooth operations. When a late delivery occurs, it is important for retailers to communicate with suppliers or logistics providers, assess the impact on their business, and make appropriate adjustments to minimize disruptions and mitigate potential customer dissatisfaction. Proactive monitoring, clear communication, and contingency planning are crucial for managing late deliveries and maintaining a reliable supply chain.

Late Shipment

Late shipment refers to a situation where goods or products are not shipped within the agreed-upon or expected timeframe. It occurs when the process of shipping items from one location to another is delayed beyond the scheduled or promised shipment date. Late shipments can disrupt supply chains, impact customer satisfaction, and cause operational challenges for retailers. Factors contributing to late shipments include logistical issues, order processing delays, inventory shortages, production delays, or unforeseen circumstances. Timely shipments are crucial for retailers to fulfill customer orders, maintain inventory levels, and ensure smooth operations. When a late shipment occurs, retailers need to communicate with their logistics partners, assess the impact on their business, and take appropriate actions to minimize disruptions and mitigate customer dissatisfaction. Effective shipment tracking, proactive communication, and contingency planning are essential for managing late shipments and maintaining a reliable supply chain.

Lead time

Lead time refers to the amount of time required to complete the entire process of sourcing, production, and delivery of products. It represents the time interval between placing an order and receiving the goods. Lead time encompasses various stages, including order processing, manufacturing or procurement, transportation, customs clearance (if applicable), and final delivery. Lead time is influenced by factors such as supplier capabilities, production schedules, shipping methods, transportation distance, customs procedures, and demand fluctuations. Retailers need to account for lead times when planning inventory, managing customer expectations, and ensuring timely product availability. Longer lead times may necessitate proactive inventory management, order forecasting, and communication with suppliers to avoid stockouts or delays in fulfilling customer orders. By effectively managing lead times, retailers can optimize their supply chain, streamline operations, and improve customer satisfaction.

Layout Center

A layout center refers to a designated space or facility where retailers create and design store layouts. It serves as a central hub for planning and visualizing the arrangement of merchandise, fixtures, signage, and other elements within a retail store. Layout centers allow retailers to experiment with different store configurations, test mock layouts, and make informed decisions about product placement, traffic flow, and overall store design. They often include tools and resources such as planograms, floor plans, virtual reality simulations, and mock store setups. Layout centers enable retailers to optimize space utilization, enhance the shopping experience, and create visually appealing displays that attract customers and drive sales. They play a crucial role in the strategic planning and execution of store layouts, ensuring that the physical environment aligns with the retailer's brand image, product assortment, and customer preferences.


LCL stands for Less than Container Load, which is a shipping term used in the retail/wholesale industry to describe a shipment that does not occupy an entire shipping container. LCL shipments combine goods from multiple shippers into a single container, allowing each shipper to pay only for their portion of the container space. LCL is commonly used when the volume of goods being shipped is not sufficient to fill a full container or when multiple small shipments need to be consolidated for cost-efficiency. LCL shipments offer flexibility and cost savings for retailers, as they eliminate the need to pay for unused container space. However, LCL shipments may have longer transit times compared to full container loads, as additional handling and consolidation steps are involved. Retailers need to coordinate with freight forwarders or logistics providers to ensure the smooth and timely movement of LCL shipments. Effective planning, documentation, and communication are essential to manage LCL shipments and optimize supply chain operations.


LDL stands for Local Delivery or Last-Mile Delivery, which refers to the final stage of the delivery process where goods are transported from a local distribution center or store to the customer's specified location. LDL is a critical component of the retail/wholesale industry's logistics chain, ensuring that products reach customers' doorsteps in a timely and efficient manner. Retailers often rely on their own fleet of vehicles or third-party delivery services for LDL operations. Successful LDL requires effective route planning, real-time tracking, and accurate delivery notifications to provide customers with visibility and convenience. Retailers need to ensure that LDL operations are well-coordinated, reliable, and aligned with customer expectations to maintain high levels of customer satisfaction. In recent years, advancements in technology and the rise of e-commerce have transformed LDL, with innovations such as same-day delivery, on-demand delivery, and the use of autonomous vehicles or drones. Retailers must continually adapt their LDL strategies to meet evolving customer demands and provide a seamless end-to-end shopping experience.


A linesheet is a document or catalog used by suppliers or manufacturers to showcase their product line to potential buyers or retail partners. It provides detailed information about the products, including product names, descriptions, specifications, pricing, available sizes or colors, and order quantities. Linesheets often include high-quality product images or illustrations to visually represent the merchandise. Suppliers distribute linesheets to retailers during buying sessions, trade shows, or through digital channels to facilitate the ordering process. Linesheets serve as a reference tool for retailers to review product offerings, make purchasing decisions, and place orders with suppliers. They help streamline communication between suppliers and retailers, ensure accurate product selection, and enable efficient order processing. Linesheets are essential for establishing successful business relationships between suppliers and retailers, supporting assortment planning, and driving sales in the retail industry.

List Price

List price refers to the manufacturer's or supplier's suggested retail price (MSRP) for a product. It represents the price at which the product is intended to be sold to end consumers. List prices serve as a reference point for retailers when determining their own selling prices and setting the retail markup. While retailers have the flexibility to adjust prices based on factors such as market conditions, competition, and pricing strategies, the list price provides a baseline for pricing decisions. List prices are communicated to retailers through pricing catalogs, linesheets, or direct communication with suppliers. Retailers consider various factors, including product costs, market demand, and competitive positioning, to determine the optimal selling price for a product. List prices play a role in price negotiations between suppliers and retailers and provide transparency and consistency in pricing across different retailers. They serve as a starting point for pricing discussions and help maintain price integrity within the retail industry.

LIFO (Last In, First Out)

LIFO, or Last In, First Out, is an inventory valuation method. It assumes that the most recently acquired or produced inventory is sold first, while older inventory remains in stock. LIFO is based on the concept that the cost of replacing inventory tends to increase over time due to factors such as inflation or rising production costs. By using LIFO, retailers assign the most recent costs to the cost of goods sold (COGS), which can result in higher COGS and lower taxable income compared to other inventory valuation methods. LIFO is commonly used in industries where inventory costs are subject to significant fluctuations, such as the grocery or consumer goods sector. However, it is important to note that the use of LIFO for financial reporting purposes may be subject to specific accounting regulations or require disclosure to stakeholders. Retailers need to carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of using LIFO for inventory valuation and consult with accounting professionals to ensure compliance with applicable regulations and accurate financial reporting.


LOC stands for Letter of Credit, which is a financial instrument commonly used in international trade transactions. A Letter of Credit is issued by a buyer's bank to the seller or exporter, guaranteeing payment upon the fulfillment of specified conditions. It provides assurance to the seller that they will receive payment for the goods or services they provide, while also protecting the buyer by ensuring that payment is only made upon satisfactory delivery or compliance with agreed-upon terms. LOCs help mitigate the risk of non-payment or fraudulent transactions in cross-border trade. Retailers often use LOCs when importing goods from overseas suppliers, as they provide a level of security and trust between the buyer and the seller. The terms and conditions of an LOC are typically negotiated between the buyer and seller, outlining the requirements for document submission, shipment inspection, and payment terms. Retailers should work closely with their banks, legal advisors, and suppliers to ensure that LOCs are properly structured and executed to facilitate smooth international trade operations.


A lot refers to a specific quantity or batch of products that are produced, purchased, or sold together as a single unit. Lots are often used to manage inventory, track product quality, and facilitate order fulfillment. The size of a lot can vary depending on the product type, production processes, or industry standards. For example, in the apparel industry, a lot may represent a specific quantity of garments produced in a single production run. Retailers may purchase or sell products in lots to take advantage of bulk pricing, streamline inventory management, or meet customer demand for specific quantities. Lots play a role in supply chain logistics, as they are used to identify and track products from production to distribution. Managing lots effectively requires accurate inventory control, efficient lot tracking systems, and clear communication between suppliers and retailers. Retailers need to ensure proper lot management to maintain product traceability, quality control, and efficient order fulfillment processes.

Landed Duty Paid (LDP)

Landed Duty Paid (LDP) is a trade term that indicates the seller's responsibility for paying all costs associated with delivering goods to a specific destination, including customs duties, taxes, transportation, and other charges. LDP is a comprehensive pricing model in which the seller assumes the financial responsibility for all logistics and import-related expenses until the goods are delivered to the buyer. LDP simplifies the purchasing process for buyers, as they receive the goods without incurring additional costs or administrative burdens associated with customs clearance. Retailers often use LDP terms when importing goods from overseas suppliers, as it provides cost predictability and reduces the complexity of cross-border transactions. LDP terms should be clearly defined and agreed upon between the buyer and the seller, outlining the specific responsibilities and obligations of each party. Proper documentation, compliance with import regulations, and collaboration with customs agents or freight forwarders are essential for successful LDP operations. Retailers should carefully evaluate the total landed costs and consider the impact on pricing, profitability, and overall supply chain efficiency when using LDP terms in their procurement strategies.


A markdown refers to a reduction in the selling price of a product from its original or list price. Markdowns are often implemented to stimulate sales, manage inventory, optimize pricing, or respond to market conditions. Retailers may apply markdowns to products that are approaching their expiration date, have slow sales velocity, or are part of seasonal clearance efforts. Markdowns can be temporary or permanent, and their magnitude can vary depending on the retailer's strategy and objectives. Implementing markdowns requires careful analysis of factors such as product profitability, market demand, competitive landscape, and inventory levels. Retailers need to consider the potential impact of markdowns on profit margins, brand image, and customer perception. Effective markdown management involves planning, monitoring sales performance, setting appropriate discount levels, and communicating markdown pricing to customers through various channels. Markdown optimization techniques, such as price segmentation, dynamic pricing, or promotional strategies, can help retailers maximize the benefits of markdowns while minimizing negative impacts on profitability.

Mass Production

Mass production refers to the large-scale manufacturing of products using standardized production processes and machinery. It involves producing goods in high volumes to meet market demand efficiently. Mass production techniques focus on achieving economies of scale, streamlining production processes, and reducing unit costs. It typically involves assembly lines, automation, and specialization of tasks to achieve high productivity. Mass production is commonly used for products with consistent demand, such as consumer electronics, apparel, or packaged goods. Retailers often rely on suppliers or manufacturers engaged in mass production to ensure a steady supply of products and competitive pricing. Mass production offers advantages such as cost efficiency, shorter lead times, and the ability to meet large order quantities. However, it may present challenges in terms of product customization, flexibility, or responsiveness to changing market trends. Retailers need to carefully assess the suitability of mass production for their product assortment, balance it with other sourcing strategies, and maintain effective communication and quality control processes with mass production suppliers to ensure consistent product availability and meet customer expectations.


Material refers to the substances or components used in the production or manufacturing of products. Materials can include raw materials, semi-finished goods, or finished components that are assembled to create the final product. The choice of materials significantly impacts product quality, durability, functionality, and cost. Retailers need to work closely with suppliers or manufacturers to ensure the availability and quality of materials that meet their product specifications and standards. Material sourcing involves considerations such as cost, availability, sustainability, compliance with regulations, and supplier relationships. Effective material management includes processes such as supplier selection, negotiation of pricing and terms, quality control, and supply chain visibility. Retailers may also engage in material innovation or collaborate with suppliers to develop sustainable or eco-friendly materials that align with consumer preferences and environmental goals. Material management plays a crucial role in ensuring the consistency, reliability, and competitive advantage of products in the retail industry.


Merchandise refers to the goods or products that are bought, sold, or traded by retailers. It encompasses the assortment of items available for purchase in a retail store or through online channels. Merchandise can include a wide range of products, such as clothing, electronics, home goods, accessories, or consumables. Retailers curate their merchandise assortment based on factors such as market demand, consumer preferences, product trends, and their brand positioning. Effective merchandise management involves strategic assortment planning, product selection, pricing, inventory control, and presentation. Retailers need to carefully analyze market trends, conduct market research, and collaborate with suppliers to ensure the availability of attractive and competitive merchandise. Merchandise management aims to optimize sales, meet customer needs, maximize profit margins, and maintain a balanced inventory that aligns with the retailer's target market and business objectives. It also involves implementing merchandising strategies, such as visual merchandising, promotions, or product placement, to enhance the shopping experience and drive customer engagement.


A mill refers to a facility or factory where raw materials, such as fabric or lumber, are processed, transformed, or manufactured into finished goods or products. Mills play a crucial role in the supply chain, especially in industries such as textiles, paper, or lumber. Retailers often source their products from mills or work closely with mill suppliers to ensure the availability, quality, and customization of materials or components used in their merchandise. Mills can vary in size and specialization, ranging from small-scale facilities to large industrial complexes. They employ specialized machinery, equipment, and skilled labor to convert raw materials into finished products. Retailers need to establish effective relationships and partnerships with mills, negotiate pricing and terms, ensure compliance with production standards, and maintain visibility into the production process to meet customer demands, manage inventory, and deliver high-quality products to the market. Collaboration with mills also plays a role in sustainability efforts, as retailers may seek mills that prioritize eco-friendly practices, recycling, or use of sustainable materials.


A mock-up refers to a prototype or visual representation of a product or store design. Mock-ups are used to evaluate and visualize the appearance, functionality, and layout of products or store environments before production or implementation. They can take various forms, including physical mock-ups, digital renderings, or virtual simulations. Mock-ups enable retailers to assess the aesthetics, ergonomics, and customer experience of their products or store concepts, make design modifications, and gather feedback before investing in full-scale production or construction. In product development, mock-ups allow retailers to test different designs, materials, or features, ensuring that the final product meets quality standards and customer expectations. In store design, mock-ups help retailers create appealing and functional store layouts, evaluate traffic flow, and optimize space utilization. Mock-ups can also be used in marketing or sales presentations to showcase products to potential buyers or investors. Retailers need to collaborate with designers, architects, or manufacturers to create accurate and representative mock-ups that align with their vision and objectives. Mock-ups facilitate informed decision-making, minimize risks, and contribute to the overall success of product development or store design initiatives.


MSRP stands for Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price, which is the price recommended by the product manufacturer or brand for the sale of a product to end consumers. MSRP serves as a suggested reference price for retailers and provides consistency and transparency in pricing across different retailers. While retailers have the flexibility to set their own selling prices, the MSRP helps maintain price integrity and aligns pricing expectations between the manufacturer, retailers, and consumers. MSRP is typically communicated to retailers through pricing catalogs, linesheets, or direct communication with suppliers. Retailers consider various factors, such as market demand, competition, product costs, and target profit margins, when determining their actual selling prices. Deviation from the MSRP can occur due to promotional strategies, discounts, or variations in market conditions. However, retailers should be cautious about deviating significantly from the MSRP, as it may impact brand perception, consumer trust, or relationships with manufacturers. Retailers should carefully evaluate the market dynamics, consumer preferences, and competitive landscape to establish pricing strategies that balance profitability, value proposition, and pricing expectations set by the MSRP.


MTD stands for Month-to-Date, a term used to indicate the performance or data accumulated from the beginning of the current month up to the present date. MTD provides a snapshot of sales, revenue, expenses, or other key performance indicators (KPIs) within the context of the current month. It allows retailers to track and assess their performance, identify trends, and make informed business decisions based on real-time data. MTD data can be compared to historical performance, targets, or industry benchmarks to evaluate progress, detect patterns, or identify areas for improvement. MTD analysis is valuable for monitoring sales trends, evaluating the effectiveness of marketing campaigns, managing inventory, or tracking financial performance within shorter timeframes. Retailers often use MTD data in conjunction with other timeframes, such as year-to-date (YTD) or prior year comparisons, to gain a comprehensive understanding of their business performance. Accurate and timely data collection, analysis, and reporting systems are essential for effective MTD monitoring and decision-making in the retail industry.


NSR stands for Net Sales Revenue, which represents the total revenue generated by a retailer after deducting returns, discounts, allowances, or sales deductions. NSR reflects the actual amount of revenue retained by the retailer from the sale of goods or services. It provides a measure of the retailer's sales performance, revenue growth, and profitability. NSR is a key financial metric used in financial reporting, performance analysis, and benchmarking. Retailers often track NSR on a regular basis, such as daily, weekly, or monthly, to monitor sales trends, evaluate the effectiveness of pricing strategies or promotional campaigns, and assess the overall financial health of the business. NSR can be compared to historical data, industry benchmarks, or targets to evaluate performance and identify areas for improvement. Accurate and reliable sales data, robust accounting systems, and adherence to accounting principles are necessary for calculating and interpreting NSR effectively. Retailers may also use additional metrics, such as gross sales, gross margin, or net profit, in conjunction with NSR to gain a comprehensive view of their financial performance.


Novelty refers to new or unique products that possess distinctive features, designs, or functionalities, often appealing to consumers' desire for innovation, trendiness, or exclusivity. Novelty items are characterized by their ability to capture attention, generate excitement, and differentiate themselves from existing products in the market. Retailers often introduce novelty products to attract customers, drive foot traffic, create buzz, or stay ahead of competitors. Novelty items can range from fashion accessories and gadgets to home decor or food and beverage products. Retailers may source novelty products from specialized suppliers, independent designers, or engage in product development to create their own unique offerings. The success of novelty items relies on effective marketing, product placement, and creating a sense of urgency or scarcity. However, retailers need to carefully evaluate the market potential, demand sustainability, and align novelty products with their target market and brand positioning. Balancing novelty products with core merchandise assortments is important to maintain a balanced product offering and meet customer expectations consistently. Monitoring consumer trends, conducting market research, and soliciting customer feedback are valuable for identifying and introducing successful novelty products in the retail industry.


OA stands for Open-to-Buy (OTB) Allocation, which is a financial planning and control tool used to manage inventory levels and purchasing budgets. OA represents the amount of money available for a retailer to spend on new merchandise during a specific period, considering factors such as sales projections, desired inventory turnover, and desired stock levels. OA helps retailers maintain a balanced inventory and optimize purchasing decisions to support sales objectives and avoid excessive inventory or stockouts. Retailers typically set OA budgets on a regular basis, such as monthly or seasonally, based on sales forecasts, historical data, and business strategies. The OA allocation takes into account factors such as planned sales, markdowns, existing inventory levels, and supplier lead times. Retailers use OA to guide purchasing decisions, negotiate with suppliers, and ensure that inventory levels align with sales targets and budget constraints. Effective OA management involves accurate sales forecasting, monitoring of inventory performance, collaboration between merchandising and finance teams, and proactive adjustment of purchasing plans based on actual sales and market conditions. Retailers can also leverage technology and analytical tools to automate and optimize OA processes for better inventory control and profitability.


An offer refers to a proposal or presentation of goods, products, or services made by a retailer to a customer or prospective buyer. An offer provides information about the availability, features, pricing, and terms of a product or service, inviting the customer to make a purchase decision. Offers can take various forms, such as advertisements, product catalogs, online listings, or sales presentations. Retailers aim to create compelling offers that effectively communicate the value, benefits, and unique selling points of their products to attract and engage customers. Offers can include promotional pricing, bundled products, limited-time discounts, or special terms to incentivize customers to buy. The effectiveness of an offer depends on factors such as customer segmentation, market positioning, pricing strategies, and the overall value proposition of the retailer. Retailers need to align their offers with customer preferences, market trends, and competitive dynamics to maximize sales conversion and customer satisfaction. Continuous monitoring of offer performance, gathering customer feedback, and analyzing market response are essential for refining and optimizing retail offers.


Offset refers to a practice where one financial transaction or obligation is balanced or counteracted by another transaction or obligation. Offsetting is often used to reconcile or adjust accounts, resolve payment discrepancies, or account for related transactions. For example, a retailer may offset a payment owed to a supplier by deducting an outstanding credit or by applying credits from product returns. Offsetting can help streamline financial processes, simplify reconciliations, and ensure accurate accounting records. Retailers need to maintain clear documentation and communication with suppliers, customers, or financial partners to facilitate offsetting transactions and prevent misunderstandings or disputes. Proper offsetting practices comply with accounting principles, regulatory requirements, and internal control procedures to maintain financial integrity and transparency. It is important for retailers to implement robust systems and controls to track and record offsetting transactions accurately and efficiently.

On Time Delivery

On Time Delivery refers to the successful and timely fulfillment of customer orders within the agreed-upon delivery timeframe. It represents the retailer's ability to meet customer expectations and honor commitments regarding delivery schedules. On-time delivery is a critical performance indicator for customer satisfaction, supply chain efficiency, and maintaining positive relationships with customers and suppliers. Achieving on-time delivery requires effective coordination among various stakeholders, such as suppliers, logistics providers, and internal operations teams. Retailers need to establish robust logistics and fulfillment processes, monitor supplier performance, track shipments, and communicate proactively with customers to ensure timely delivery. Factors that can impact on-time delivery include inventory availability, transportation delays, weather conditions, customs clearance, or unforeseen disruptions. Retailers may employ technology solutions, such as order management systems, real-time tracking, or automated notifications, to enhance visibility, streamline processes, and address delivery challenges proactively. By prioritizing on-time delivery, retailers can enhance customer loyalty, drive repeat business, and maintain a competitive advantage in the market.

On Time Shipment

On Time Shipment refers to the timely dispatch or release of goods from a retailer's warehouse or distribution center to fulfill customer orders. It indicates the retailer's ability to meet customer demand, minimize lead times, and ensure the availability of products when expected by customers. On-time shipment is crucial for maintaining customer satisfaction, optimizing inventory turnover, and sustaining efficient supply chain operations. Achieving on-time shipment requires effective coordination among various departments, such as procurement, warehousing, order fulfillment, and transportation. Retailers need to have robust inventory management systems, accurate order processing, and streamlined logistics operations to ensure timely shipment. Factors that can impact on-time shipment include stock availability, order processing delays, warehouse capacity, transportation constraints, or unforeseen disruptions. Retailers may employ technology solutions, such as warehouse management systems, order tracking, or automated workflows, to enhance visibility, improve efficiency, and address shipment challenges proactively. By prioritizing on-time shipment, retailers can enhance their reputation, build customer trust, and drive customer loyalty in a competitive market.

Open Price Point (OPP)

Open Price Point (OPP) refers to a pricing strategy where a retailer offers products at various price levels without a predetermined price ceiling. OPP allows retailers to provide a range of products at different price points to cater to customers with diverse budgets and preferences. The absence of a fixed price ceiling in OPP provides flexibility to capture a broader customer base and accommodate different purchasing power levels. Retailers can offer products at OPPs by carefully curating merchandise assortments, negotiating favorable pricing with suppliers, or leveraging economies of scale. OPP can be implemented across various product categories, such as apparel, electronics, or home goods. By offering products at different price points, retailers can appeal to a wider customer segment, increase sales volume, and drive overall revenue. Effective implementation of OPP requires understanding the target market, monitoring competitive pricing, conducting pricing analysis, and maintaining a balance between product quality, value proposition, and profit margins. Retailers should also consider factors such as brand perception, market positioning, and customer expectations when employing an OPP strategy.


An opportunity refers to a favorable or advantageous circumstance or situation that presents the potential for business growth, profitability, or competitive advantage. Opportunities can arise from various factors, such as market trends, consumer demands, emerging technologies, changes in regulations, or gaps in the competitive landscape. Retailers need to be proactive in identifying and capitalizing on opportunities to drive business success. This may involve market research, trend analysis, customer insights, competitor analysis, or strategic partnerships. Opportunities can manifest in different forms, such as new market segments, product innovation, expansion into new geographic regions, digital transformation, or operational efficiencies. Retailers should assess the feasibility, risks, and potential returns associated with each opportunity and develop action plans to seize them effectively. Taking advantage of opportunities requires agility, adaptability, and a willingness to embrace change. It is important for retailers to foster a culture of innovation, encourage cross-functional collaboration, and empower employees to identify and pursue opportunities that align with the company's strategic objectives. By capitalizing on opportunities, retailers can differentiate themselves in the market, drive growth, and stay ahead of the competition.


The term "order" refers to a fundamental process of requesting, acquiring, and delivering goods or services to fulfill customer demand. An order serves as a formal arrangement between a buyer and a seller, establishing the terms and conditions of the transaction.The order process typically begins when a customer expresses their intention to purchase a particular product or service. This can be done through various channels, such as in-store interactions, online platforms, or through sales representatives. The customer specifies the desired quantity, specifications, and any other relevant details pertaining to the order.

Order Qty

Order Qty refers to the quantity of products or items that a retailer or wholesaler requests to purchase from a supplier or manufacturer. It represents the specific number of units that the buyer wants to acquire in a single order. The Order Qty is a critical factor in inventory management and supply chain operations as it determines the quantity of goods that will be shipped, stocked, and made available for sale. It helps to ensure that the retailer or wholesaler maintains appropriate stock levels to meet customer demands and avoid stockouts. The Order Qty may vary depending on factors such as customer demand forecasts, sales trends, replenishment strategies, and storage capacity. Managing the Order Qty effectively is essential for maintaining efficient inventory levels, minimizing carrying costs, and maximizing profitability.


An organization refers to a structured entity that engages in commercial activities, such as buying, selling, and distributing goods. It can encompass various types of entities, including retail companies, wholesalers, distributors, manufacturers, and other businesses involved in the supply chain. An organization typically has defined hierarchies, departments, and functions to facilitate its operations. These may include sales, marketing, purchasing, logistics, finance, and human resources. The organization's structure and size can vary, ranging from small independent retailers to multinational corporations with multiple locations and a global presence. Successful organizations in the retail/wholesale industry focus on effective management, efficient processes, customer satisfaction, and adapting to market trends to achieve their business objectives.

OTS (Open to Sell)

OTS, short for Open to Sell, is a term used in the retail industry to refer to the quantity of inventory that is available for immediate sale to customers. It represents the stock that is not reserved, allocated, or on hold for specific purposes, such as pending orders or internal use. OTS serves as a key performance indicator for retailers, indicating the amount of merchandise they can actively offer to customers without delays or constraints. Monitoring OTS is crucial for maintaining healthy inventory levels and meeting customer demands. It involves assessing the quantity of products on hand, considering factors like sales velocity, replenishment lead times, and seasonality. By regularly tracking and optimizing the Open to Sell, retailers can make informed decisions regarding purchasing, restocking, and promotional activities to ensure adequate product availability and maximize sales opportunities.


Overage refers to the surplus or excess quantity of products received beyond the ordered amount. It occurs when a supplier or manufacturer delivers more units than originally specified in the purchase order. Overage can result from various factors, such as production variations, shipping errors, or supplier generosity. While unexpected, overage can sometimes be advantageous as it provides additional inventory that can be used to fulfill customer orders, replenish stock, or take advantage of sales opportunities. However, excessive overage can lead to increased carrying costs, storage challenges, and potential stock obsolescence. Effective inventory management practices involve promptly identifying and addressing overage situations, such as coordinating with suppliers for return or adjustment arrangements, updating inventory records, and optimizing replenishment strategies to minimize the occurrence of excessive overage.

Packaging Unit

Packaging Unit refers to the standardized quantity or configuration in which products are packaged or grouped together for sale, storage, or distribution. It represents the primary unit of packaging used by manufacturers or suppliers to present and transport their products. The Packaging Unit can vary depending on the nature of the product and industry practices. For instance, in the retail industry, it could be a single item packaged individually, a set of multiple items sold together, or a case containing a certain quantity of products. Standardizing the Packaging Unit facilitates efficient handling, storage, and transportation throughout the supply chain. It streamlines processes such as counting, labeling, pricing, and shelf replenishment for retailers or wholesalers. Moreover, the Packaging Unit plays a role in determining product pricing, shelf space allocation, and order quantities between suppliers and buyers. Manufacturers and suppliers carefully consider the appropriate Packaging Unit to balance product presentation, customer preferences, logistical considerations, and cost-effectiveness.

Partial Delivery

Partial Delivery refers to a situation in which only a portion of the total ordered quantity is delivered to the buyer or recipient. It occurs when a supplier or logistics provider is unable to fulfill the entire order at once due to various reasons, such as inventory shortages, production delays, or shipping constraints. When a partial delivery occurs, the supplier typically communicates the specifics to the buyer, including the quantity delivered, the remaining balance, and any anticipated delivery timeline for the outstanding items. The buyer then adjusts their inventory and operations accordingly based on the partial delivery. Managing partial deliveries effectively involves close communication and coordination between the supplier and buyer, ensuring accurate documentation, adjusting inventory records, and making any necessary adjustments to customer orders, sales forecasts, or replenishment plans.

Partial Shipment

Partial Shipment refers to the situation where a portion of an order is shipped or dispatched to the buyer or recipient, while the remaining items are still pending and yet to be shipped. It commonly occurs when a supplier or logistics provider is unable to fulfill the entire order at once due to inventory availability, production constraints, or shipping limitations. The partial shipment allows the supplier to fulfill and deliver a portion of the order promptly, ensuring that the buyer receives at least a portion of the requested products. The supplier communicates the specifics of the partial shipment to the buyer, including the quantity shipped, tracking information, and any updates on the remaining items. The buyer adjusts their operations, inventory, and customer orders based on the partial shipment, ensuring accurate stock management and timely fulfillment. Managing partial shipments effectively requires effective communication, documentation, and coordination between the supplier, logistics providers, and the buyer. It is crucial to maintain transparency, provide updated information, and promptly address any outstanding items to ensure customer satisfaction and minimize operational disruptions.

Parent SKU

Parent SKU, short for Stock Keeping Unit, is a unique identifier assigned to a specific product or item within a retailer or wholesaler's inventory. It represents the highest level of classification for a product and serves as a master reference for all the variations, styles, sizes, or colors associated with that specific product. The Parent SKU acts as a key identifier in inventory management systems and helps streamline processes such as tracking stock levels, sales analysis, and replenishment. Each variation or attribute of the product, known as a Child SKU, is linked to the Parent SKU, allowing for efficient management and reporting of the overall product assortment. For example, a Parent SKU could represent a particular shirt style, while the Child SKUs would encompass each size and color available for that shirt style. By organizing products into Parent SKUs and Child SKUs, retailers and wholesalers can effectively manage their inventory, analyze sales performance, forecast demand, and optimize replenishment strategies.


A pallet is a flat platform or structure, typically made of wood, plastic, or metal, used for stacking and transporting goods within the retail/wholesale industry. It serves as a foundation for organizing and consolidating products for efficient handling, storage, and transportation. Pallets are designed to be lifted and moved using specialized equipment, such as forklifts or pallet jacks, facilitating smooth material flow across the supply chain. The standard size of a pallet is typically 48 inches by 40 inches, although other dimensions may exist depending on regional or industry-specific requirements. Pallets provide several benefits in the retail/wholesale industry, including improved handling efficiency, reduced manual labor, minimized product damage, and enhanced warehouse space utilization. They enable goods to be stacked securely, optimizing vertical space and facilitating easy movement during loading, unloading, and storage operations. Additionally, pallets enhance supply chain visibility and tracking, as they can be labeled, scanned, or tagged to associate them with specific products, orders, or destinations. By utilizing pallets effectively, retailers and wholesalers can streamline their logistics processes, enhance inventory management, and improve overall operational efficiency.

Pending Order

A pending order refers to a customer's order that has been received by a retailer or wholesaler but has not yet been fulfilled or shipped. It represents a confirmed purchase request that is awaiting processing, picking, packing, and shipping. When a customer places an order, it enters the retailer's order management system as a pending order until it progresses through the various fulfillment stages and ultimately becomes a shipped or completed order. Retailers and wholesalers typically have processes in place to monitor and manage pending orders, ensuring timely processing, accurate inventory allocation, and efficient fulfillment. By tracking pending orders, businesses can prioritize order processing, allocate inventory, manage customer expectations, and provide updates or notifications regarding the order status. Effective management of pending orders involves efficient coordination between sales, inventory management, and logistics teams to streamline fulfillment, minimize order delays, and enhance customer satisfaction.

Pick (Picked)

The term "pick" or "picked" refers to the process of selecting and gathering items from the inventory to fulfill a specific customer order. It involves locating the requested products, verifying their availability, and physically retrieving them from the storage or picking area. The picking process is a critical step in order fulfillment and plays a significant role in ensuring accurate and efficient delivery to customers. Depending on the organization's size and operations, the picking process can be performed manually by employees or automated using technology such as barcode scanning or pick-to-light systems. Once the items are picked, they are typically moved to a staging area for further processing, such as packing and shipping. Accurate and efficient picking is essential to minimize errors, prevent stockouts, and deliver orders within the expected timeframes. Retailers and wholesalers employ various picking strategies and techniques, such as batch picking, zone picking, or wave picking, to optimize productivity and reduce the time required to complete the picking process. By implementing efficient picking processes and utilizing appropriate technology or systems, businesses can enhance order accuracy, improve fulfillment speed, and ultimately deliver a positive customer experience.


A planogram, often abbreviated as "POG," is a visual representation or diagram that illustrates the arrangement and placement of products within a retail space, such as a store shelf or display area. It serves as a merchandising tool used by retailers or wholesalers to optimize product placement, improve visual appeal, and enhance the overall shopping experience for customers. A planogram typically includes detailed instructions regarding the specific products to be placed, their positioning, facing, shelf heights, and any recommended signage or promotional materials. By following a planogram, retailers can create consistent and visually appealing product displays that highlight key merchandise, facilitate easy navigation, and maximize sales potential. Planograms take into account factors such as product category, customer buying behavior, seasonal variations, and sales data to guide the layout and arrangement of products. Retailers often collaborate with suppliers or manufacturers to develop planograms that align with their marketing strategies, brand guidelines, and product assortment. The effective utilization of planograms requires ongoing analysis, adjustments, and monitoring to ensure optimal product visibility, inventory turnover, and customer engagement. Retailers may also use planogram software or specialized merchandising tools to streamline the planogram creation process and facilitate updates across multiple store locations.


A planner refers to an individual or role responsible for overseeing and managing various aspects of merchandise planning and allocation. Planners play a crucial role in driving sales, optimizing inventory levels, and maximizing profitability through effective assortment and inventory management strategies. They collaborate closely with cross-functional teams, including buyers, suppliers, marketers, and store operations, to develop comprehensive merchandise plans, forecasts, and inventory targets. Planners analyze historical sales data, market trends, customer preferences, and other relevant factors to create accurate demand forecasts, identify sales opportunities, and determine the appropriate product mix for each store or channel. They also consider factors such as seasonality, promotional activities, pricing strategies, and competitive landscape to align merchandise plans with the overall business objectives. Additionally, planners monitor inventory levels, sales performance, and market dynamics to make informed decisions regarding replenishment, markdowns, and inventory allocation across different store locations or distribution channels. Strong analytical skills, attention to detail, and proficiency in merchandise planning software and tools are essential for planners to effectively manage inventory, optimize sales potential, and adapt to changing market conditions. By collaborating with key stakeholders and utilizing data-driven insights, planners contribute to driving sales growth, maintaining healthy inventory turnover, and delivering an optimal shopping experience for customers.

PO (Purchase Order)

A Purchase Order (PO) is a legally binding document issued by a buyer to a supplier or manufacturer, formally requesting the purchase of goods or services. It outlines the specific details of the purchase, including the type and quantity of products, agreed-upon prices, delivery terms, payment terms, and any other relevant terms and conditions. The PO serves as an essential communication tool between the buyer and the supplier, ensuring clarity, accuracy, and mutual agreement regarding the transaction. Upon receiving a PO, the supplier typically acknowledges it and proceeds with fulfilling the order accordingly. POs streamline the procurement process, provide documentation for financial records, and establish a framework for resolving any potential disputes or discrepancies. They are critical for effective inventory management, as they enable the buyer to track and control the flow of goods, monitor order status, and ensure timely delivery. Additionally, POs facilitate accurate invoicing and payment processes, as the supplier can reference the PO number when issuing invoices, and the buyer can match the received goods with the corresponding PO for payment approval. Efficient PO management involves maintaining clear communication, adhering to agreed-upon timelines, and promptly addressing any issues or changes that may arise during the procurement process.

PO Type

PO Type refers to the categorization or classification of a Purchase Order (PO) based on specific criteria or purpose within the retail/wholesale industry. Different PO Types may exist to reflect varying procurement scenarios, business needs, or contractual requirements. Common examples of PO Types include Standard PO, Blanket PO, Drop-Ship PO, Consignment PO, and Contract PO, among others. Each PO Type defines the terms, conditions, and guidelines governing the purchase transaction, such as the ordering process, pricing structure, payment terms, delivery expectations, and any applicable discounts or incentives. For instance, a Standard PO is a typical purchase order for one-time purchases or replenishment orders, while a Blanket PO is a long-term agreement covering multiple deliveries within a specified period. A Drop-Ship PO is used when the retailer or wholesaler sells products that are directly shipped from the supplier to the end customer. Consignment POs are used when the supplier retains ownership of the goods until they are sold by the retailer. Contract POs are associated with contractual agreements and may involve complex terms, volume commitments, or special pricing structures. Accurate classification of PO Types helps streamline procurement processes, ensures compliance with contractual obligations, and facilitates efficient order fulfillment and inventory management. By understanding the specific requirements and implications of each PO Type, retailers and wholesalers can effectively manage their supplier relationships, optimize purchasing practices, and align procurement strategies with business objectives.


A port refers to a designated location, often a seaport or airport, where goods are imported or exported for international trade. Ports serve as key logistical hubs, facilitating the movement of goods between countries or regions. They provide the necessary infrastructure, facilities, and services for cargo handling, customs clearance, inspection, and transportation. Ports play a vital role in the supply chain, connecting manufacturers, suppliers, and retailers across different countries and facilitating the global flow of goods. The choice of port can significantly impact transportation costs, shipping lead times, and overall supply chain efficiency. Retailers and wholesalers strategically select ports based on factors such as proximity to suppliers or target markets, infrastructure capabilities, shipping routes, customs regulations, and overall logistics costs. By leveraging the appropriate ports and optimizing transportation routes, businesses can minimize transit times, reduce costs, and enhance their competitive advantage in the global marketplace.

PPK (Pieces per Kilogram)

PPK (Pieces per Kilogram) is a metric used to measure the weight-based productivity or efficiency of handling and packaging individual products. It represents the average number of items or pieces that can be packed or handled within one kilogram of weight. PPK helps assess the packaging density, volume utilization, and overall operational efficiency in processes such as picking, packing, and transportation. A higher PPK value indicates better utilization of space and resources, as more items can be handled or transported within a given weight or volume. Monitoring PPK enables businesses to identify opportunities for process improvement, optimize packaging configurations, and enhance productivity in their operations. By increasing the PPK value, retailers and wholesalers can reduce packaging waste, maximize container utilization, improve transportation efficiency, and ultimately lower costs throughout the supply chain. Achieving higher PPK values often involves implementing appropriate packaging designs, utilizing packaging materials with optimal weight-to-volume ratios, and optimizing order fulfillment processes to maximize the number of items packed within specified weight constraints.

Pre-Production Sample

A pre-production sample refers to a prototype or model of a product that is created before the mass production phase. It is produced to assess the quality, functionality, and design of the item before it goes into full-scale production. This sample allows retailers and wholesalers to evaluate the product's features, materials, and overall manufacturing process. Pre-production samples are crucial for identifying any potential issues or improvements required, ensuring that the final product meets the desired standards and specifications. These samples can be used for testing, quality control, and obtaining feedback from stakeholders, such as buyers or consumers, to make necessary adjustments before proceeding with large-scale production. It helps to minimize the risk of costly errors and improve the final product's market readiness and customer satisfaction.

Priority Date

Priority date refers to the specific date that establishes the filing or submission date of a product-related application, such as a patent or trademark application. The priority date is crucial for determining the order of priority for intellectual property protection or legal rights associated with a particular product. It serves as a reference point to ascertain the novelty and uniqueness of a product or its features. The priority date is essential for establishing legal ownership, defending against potential infringements, and enforcing intellectual property rights. Retailers and wholesalers often rely on the priority date to ensure they are dealing with legally protected products and to assess the competitive advantage or market exclusivity associated with a particular product.


A product refers to any tangible or intangible item or commodity offered for sale or distribution to consumers. It can encompass a wide range of goods, including physical objects, merchandise, consumables, or services. Products are typically created or sourced with the intention of meeting customer needs or desires, addressing specific market demands, and generating revenue for the business. The term "product" includes both finished goods ready for sale and components used in the manufacturing or assembly of other products. Successful retail and wholesale operations involve careful product selection, assortment planning, inventory management, pricing strategies, and effective marketing and promotion efforts to attract target customers and achieve sales objectives.

Product Mix

Product mix refers to the combination or assortment of products that a retailer or wholesaler offers to its customers. It represents the entire range of products available within a particular business or product category. A well-designed product mix aims to satisfy diverse customer preferences, cater to various market segments, and maximize sales potential. It involves the strategic selection, categorization, and arrangement of products based on factors such as customer demand, profitability, market trends, and competitive analysis. A balanced and optimized product mix ensures that a retailer or wholesaler can attract a broad customer base, differentiate itself from competitors, and capture a larger market share. Effective product mix management requires continuous evaluation, market research, and adaptation to changing consumer preferences and market dynamics.

Product Specifications

Product specifications refer to the detailed requirements, characteristics, and attributes that define a particular product. They outline the specific features, materials, dimensions, performance standards, and other relevant parameters that the product must possess. These specifications are essential for ensuring consistency, quality control, and meeting customer expectations. Retailers and wholesalers rely on accurate and comprehensive product specifications to communicate with manufacturers, suppliers, and other stakeholders involved in the production or distribution process. Well-defined product specifications facilitate efficient sourcing, production planning, quality assurance, and regulatory compliance. They serve as a common reference point for all parties involved and help minimize misunderstandings, errors, and product deviations during the manufacturing and supply chain processes. Precise and detailed product specifications contribute to producing products that align with market demands, comply with industry standards, and deliver the desired level of customer satisfaction.


Production refers to the process of manufacturing, assembling, or creating products in large quantities to meet market demand. It involves transforming raw materials, components, or resources into finished goods ready for sale. Production encompasses various activities, including procurement, inventory management, manufacturing operations, quality control, packaging, and logistics. Effective production management aims to optimize efficiency, minimize costs, ensure consistent product quality, and meet customer delivery expectations. It requires careful planning, coordination, and utilization of resources, such as labor, machinery, and technology. The production process may vary depending on the nature of the products, manufacturing techniques, and industry-specific requirements. With advancements in automation and technology, production in the retail/wholesale industry has become more streamlined and adaptable, enabling businesses to respond quickly to changing market conditions and efficiently deliver products to consumers.

Production Plan

A production plan refers to a strategic document or framework that outlines the details and schedules for the production of goods within a specific timeframe. It encompasses the allocation of resources, labor, equipment, and materials required to meet production targets. A well-developed production plan considers factors such as market demand, capacity constraints, lead times, inventory levels, and production costs. It aims to optimize production efficiency, minimize downtime, and ensure timely delivery of products to customers. The production plan serves as a guideline for production managers, supervisors, and workers, enabling them to coordinate and execute the necessary tasks and activities throughout the production process. By aligning production activities with business goals and market requirements, a production plan helps organizations achieve operational excellence, maintain customer satisfaction, and manage costs effectively.


A projection refers to an estimate or forecast of future sales, revenues, expenses, or other key performance indicators. It involves analyzing historical data, market trends, consumer behavior, and other relevant factors to predict the potential outcomes or trends for a specific period. Projections assist retailers and wholesalers in decision-making processes, such as budgeting, inventory planning, pricing strategies, and resource allocation. They provide insights into the expected demand for products, potential market opportunities, and financial performance expectations. Projections can be based on quantitative models, statistical analysis, market research, or expert judgment. While projections provide valuable guidance, they are subject to uncertainties and external factors that can influence actual outcomes. Regular monitoring, evaluation, and adjustment of projections are necessary to ensure alignment with evolving market dynamics and to facilitate agile and informed business strategies.

Proto Sample

A proto sample, short for prototype sample, refers to a preliminary model or sample of a product that is created during the initial stages of product development. It serves as a visual representation or working model to evaluate the design concept, functionality, and overall feasibility of a product idea. Proto samples are typically handmade or produced using rapid prototyping techniques and may not be an exact replica of the final product in terms of materials or finishing. They are used to gather feedback, make design refinements, and validate the product concept before proceeding to mass production. Proto samples help identify potential design flaws, manufacturing challenges, or user experience issues early on, minimizing the risk of costly modifications or recalls in later stages. They allow retailers and wholesalers to assess the market potential, aesthetics, and performance of a product, aiding in the decision-making process regarding investment, pricing, marketing, and production scalability. Proto samples play a vital role in bridging the gap between product design and actual production, ensuring the final product meets the desired standards and customer expectations.


QOH stands for "Quantity On Hand" and is a term used in retail and wholesale inventory management to refer to the number of units or items of a particular product currently available in stock at a given time. QOH provides a real-time snapshot of the inventory level, indicating the quantity of goods that are physically present and ready for sale or distribution. It is a critical metric for inventory control, order fulfillment, and supply chain management. Retailers and wholesalers monitor the QOH to ensure adequate stock levels to meet customer demand, avoid stockouts or overstocking, and optimize inventory turnover. QOH information is typically tracked using inventory management systems or point-of-sale (POS) software, allowing businesses to have visibility into their stock levels, plan replenishment, and make informed purchasing or production decisions. Accurate and timely tracking of QOH helps minimize operational inefficiencies, maximize sales opportunities, and maintain customer satisfaction by ensuring products are available when needed.


A quote, also known as a quotation or estimate, is a formal document provided by a retailer or wholesaler to a customer or client that outlines the proposed price, terms, and conditions for a specific product or service. It serves as a written offer to sell goods or provide services at a specified cost. Quotes are generated in response to customer inquiries, requests for proposals, or as part of a sales process. They include details such as product descriptions, quantities, pricing, delivery timelines, payment terms, and any applicable discounts or additional charges. Quotes are essential for establishing clear communication, managing customer expectations, and negotiating agreements between the buyer and seller. They enable customers to compare prices, evaluate options, and make informed purchasing decisions. For retailers and wholesalers, quotes facilitate order processing, contract formation, and serve as a basis for sales agreements. Efficient quote management involves timely response, accuracy, and flexibility in accommodating customer requirements while ensuring profitability and maintaining competitiveness in the market.


A quotesheet, also known as a price sheet or pricing catalog, is a document or spreadsheet that provides an organized summary of pricing information for multiple products or services offered by a retailer or wholesaler. It presents a comprehensive overview of various product options, associated prices, and relevant details to assist customers or clients in selecting and comparing different offerings. Quotesheets typically include product descriptions, SKU or item codes, unit prices, volume discounts, package deals, and any special terms or conditions related to pricing. They can be distributed to customers through various channels, such as printed catalogs, digital downloads, or online platforms. Quotesheets help streamline the sales process, enable quick reference for sales representatives or customers, and facilitate consistent pricing across multiple products or customer segments. They serve as a valuable tool for pricing transparency, order accuracy, and efficient sales negotiations, enabling retailers and wholesalers to effectively communicate and promote their product offerings.


A queue refers to a line or sequence of people, products, or tasks waiting to be processed or served. It represents a structured flow of entities awaiting their turn for further action or attention. Queues can occur in various aspects of retail and wholesale operations, such as customer queues at checkout counters, order processing queues, or production queues for manufacturing processes. Managing queues effectively is crucial for optimizing operational efficiency, minimizing wait times, and ensuring smooth workflow. Retailers and wholesalers employ various strategies to manage queues, such as implementing efficient queuing systems, deploying adequate staff or resources, optimizing process flows, and utilizing technology solutions like queue management software. By efficiently managing queues, businesses can enhance customer satisfaction, reduce bottlenecks, and improve overall productivity and service delivery.


A racetrack is a term used to describe the layout or design of a store or retail space that encourages customers to follow a specific path or circuit while browsing or shopping. The racetrack layout is characterized by a clear, defined pathway that loops around the store, guiding customers through different sections, product displays, and merchandise categories. The racetrack design aims to maximize customer exposure to various products, promote exploration, and increase the likelihood of impulse purchases. It also enables retailers to manage traffic flow, optimize product placement, and strategically position promotional or high-margin items along the pathway. The racetrack concept is commonly used in larger retail stores, supermarkets, and department stores to create a customer-friendly shopping experience, improve navigation, and enhance sales opportunities. By leading customers along a designated path, the racetrack layout helps retailers engage shoppers, promote product discovery, and ultimately drive sales and customer satisfaction.


"Ref" is a shorthand abbreviation commonly used to refer to a refund. A refund is a financial transaction where a customer receives a reimbursement or repayment of the amount paid for a product or service. It typically occurs when a customer returns a product due to dissatisfaction, defects, or other valid reasons, and is entitled to receive their money back. A refund may also be issued as compensation for price adjustments, order cancellations, or overpayments. Retailers and wholesalers have refund policies and procedures in place to handle customer returns and process refunds efficiently. Refunds are usually provided through the original payment method, such as credit card refunds or cash reimbursements. Accurate and timely processing of refunds is essential for maintaining customer trust, ensuring consumer rights, and upholding fair business practices. Effective refund management involves clear communication with customers, adherence to refund policies, and efficient coordination between sales, customer service, and finance departments to facilitate a smooth and satisfactory refund experience.


A refund is a financial transaction where a customer receives a reimbursement or repayment of the amount paid for a product or service. It typically occurs when a customer returns a product due to dissatisfaction, defects, or other valid reasons, and is entitled to receive their money back. A refund may also be issued as compensation for price adjustments, order cancellations, or overpayments. Retailers and wholesalers have refund policies and procedures in place to handle customer returns and process refunds efficiently. Refunds are usually provided through the original payment method, such as credit card refunds or cash reimbursements. Accurate and timely processing of refunds is essential for maintaining customer trust, ensuring consumer rights, and upholding fair business practices. Effective refund management involves clear communication with customers, adherence to refund policies, and efficient coordination between sales, customer service, and finance departments to facilitate a smooth and satisfactory refund experience.


Remittance refers to the payment or transfer of funds from a customer or buyer to a retailer or wholesaler as settlement for goods or services purchased. It represents the act of sending money or making a payment to fulfill financial obligations. Remittance can occur through various payment methods, such as cash, checks, credit cards, electronic funds transfers (EFT), or online payment platforms. In retail and wholesale transactions, remittance may involve the transfer of funds at the point of sale, upon invoice receipt, or as part of a regular billing cycle. Retailers and wholesalers have established payment policies and processes to facilitate remittance and ensure secure and accurate financial transactions. Efficient remittance management includes proper documentation, reconciliation of payments, and timely updating of financial records. By effectively managing remittance, businesses can optimize cash flow, minimize payment delays, and maintain financial stability and credibility.


Replenishment refers to the process of restocking or resupplying inventory to maintain optimal stock levels and meet customer demand. It involves monitoring inventory levels, assessing sales patterns, and initiating orders or production to replenish depleted or low-stock items. Replenishment strategies and methods vary depending on the nature of the business, product characteristics, and supply chain dynamics. Retailers and wholesalers utilize various approaches for replenishment, such as periodic replenishment based on predetermined stock targets, just-in-time (JIT) replenishment, or automatic reorder systems triggered by inventory monitoring systems. Effective replenishment management ensures that products are consistently available for purchase, minimizes stockouts, avoids overstocking, and optimizes inventory turnover. It requires accurate demand forecasting, efficient supply chain coordination, and seamless integration between procurement, production, and distribution processes. By optimizing replenishment practices, retailers and wholesalers can enhance customer satisfaction, improve operational efficiency, and maximize sales and profitability.

Responsible Sourcing

Responsible sourcing, also known as ethical sourcing or sustainable sourcing, refers to the practice of procuring products or raw materials from suppliers or manufacturers who adhere to socially and environmentally responsible business practices. It involves considering and addressing factors such as labor conditions, worker rights, fair trade, environmental impact, and compliance with relevant regulations or standards. Responsible sourcing aims to ensure that products are produced under ethical and sustainable conditions, minimizing harm to people, communities, and the environment. In the retail/wholesale industry, responsible sourcing involves conducting due diligence on suppliers, engaging in transparent supply chain management, and promoting accountability throughout the production and distribution processes. Retailers and wholesalers adopt responsible sourcing practices to mitigate reputational risks, align with consumer values, and contribute to sustainable development goals. By prioritizing responsible sourcing, businesses demonstrate their commitment to social responsibility, environmental stewardship, and fair business practices while building trust with customers and stakeholders.


A return refers to the act of a customer bringing back a purchased product to the retailer or wholesaler for various reasons, such as dissatisfaction, defects, incorrect shipment, or exchange. Returns allow customers to seek resolution for their concerns and receive remedies, such as refunds, replacements, or store credits. Retailers and wholesalers typically have return policies and procedures in place to handle customer returns efficiently and ensure customer satisfaction. Return policies outline the terms and conditions for returns, including time limits, acceptable reasons, required documentation, and refund or exchange options. Managing returns effectively involves clear communication with customers, streamlined return processes, quality control or inspection of returned items, and proper inventory management to handle returned products. Retailers and wholesalers aim to strike a balance between accommodating customer needs, protecting business interests, and maintaining product quality standards. By providing a smooth and customer-centric return experience, businesses can build customer loyalty, improve brand reputation, and foster positive relationships with their customer base.

RFQ (Request for Quote)

RFQ stands for "Request for Quote" and is a formal solicitation or invitation from a buyer or customer to potential suppliers or vendors to submit price quotations for specific products or services. An RFQ typically includes detailed specifications, quantities, delivery requirements, and any other relevant terms and conditions that suppliers need to consider when preparing their quotes. RFQs are commonly used in the procurement process to gather pricing information, compare offers, and select suppliers based on competitive pricing and suitability. Retailers and wholesalers use RFQs to communicate their requirements to suppliers, obtain competitive quotes, negotiate pricing or terms, and make informed purchasing decisions. RFQs streamline the sourcing process, facilitate vendor selection, and enable businesses to secure the best value for their procurement needs. Effective management of RFQs involves clear communication, accurate specifications, timely responses, and efficient evaluation of quotes received to identify the most suitable suppliers. By leveraging RFQs, retailers and wholesalers can enhance transparency, optimize supplier relationships, and drive cost savings in their procurement activities.

RFP (Request for Proposal)

RFP stands for Request for Proposal, which is a formal document issued by a company or organization to solicit proposals from potential suppliers or service providers. It outlines the company's requirements, expectations, and evaluation criteria for the desired product or service. The RFP typically includes detailed specifications, project scope, timelines, budget, and other relevant information. Companies use RFPs to gather competitive bids and select the most suitable vendor based on their proposed solutions, pricing, and qualifications. The RFP process helps ensure transparency, fairness, and effective evaluation of vendors to make informed procurement decisions. It enables companies to compare multiple proposals and choose the best value proposition for their specific needs.

RTV (Return to Vendor)

RTV stands for Return to Vendor, which refers to the process of returning merchandise or products from a retailer to the original supplier or manufacturer. RTV usually occurs when the retailer has excess or unsold inventory, defective products, or when there is a need for product recalls. The retailer initiates the RTV process by contacting the supplier or manufacturer to request authorization for the return. Once approved, the retailer follows specific procedures, such as packaging the items, attaching the necessary documentation (e.g., return authorization, proof of purchase), and arranging the logistics for the return. The goal of RTV is to ensure that retailers can efficiently manage their inventory, maintain good relationships with suppliers, and mitigate any potential financial losses or quality issues associated with the returned products.

Sales Velocity

Sales velocity is a metric used to measure the speed at which products are sold or how quickly inventory is turned into sales within a given time period. It is calculated by dividing the total sales revenue by the average inventory value during that period. Sales velocity provides valuable insights into product performance and helps retailers assess the effectiveness of their sales strategies. High sales velocity indicates strong consumer demand and efficient inventory management, while low sales velocity may indicate slow-moving or less popular products. By analyzing sales velocity, retailers can make data-driven decisions regarding product assortment, pricing, promotions, and inventory replenishment to optimize sales and maximize profitability.

SAP (Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing)

SAP, an acronym for Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing, refers to a comprehensive suite of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software solutions developed by the German company SAP SE. SAP is widely used in the retail/wholesale industry and other sectors to streamline business processes, integrate data, and support critical operations such as supply chain management, inventory control, finance, human resources, and customer relationship management. The SAP software suite comprises various modules that can be customized and tailored to meet specific business requirements. It provides a centralized platform for real-time data visibility, analytics, and decision-making, enabling companies to optimize their operations, enhance efficiency, and achieve greater business agility. SAP's robust functionality and scalability make it a popular choice for large and multinational retail/wholesale organizations seeking integrated and efficient management solutions.


A season refers to a specific period during which certain products or collections are promoted and sold based on prevailing trends, weather conditions, or consumer demand patterns. Seasons are typically associated with fashion and apparel, but they can also apply to other product categories such as home decor, electronics, or seasonal goods. The retail industry commonly recognizes four primary seasons: spring, summer, fall (autumn), and winter. Each season has distinct characteristics and influences consumer preferences, prompting retailers to adjust their product offerings, marketing strategies, and inventory management accordingly. Seasonal products are often associated with specific events or holidays, such as back-to-school season, holiday shopping season, or Valentine's Day. Retailers plan their inventory, marketing campaigns, and promotions in advance to capitalize on seasonal peaks in demand and optimize sales opportunities. Effective season management requires careful forecasting, trend analysis, and understanding of customer preferences to ensure the right products are available at the right time and in the right quantities.

Sell Through

Sell through is a retail metric that measures the rate at which merchandise is sold within a given period, typically expressed as a percentage. It helps retailers assess the success of their inventory management and sales strategies by determining how effectively they convert available inventory into sales. Sell-through rate is calculated by dividing the total units sold during a specific period by the initial quantity of inventory at the beginning of that period and multiplying by 100. A high sell-through rate indicates strong consumer demand and efficient inventory turnover, while a low sell-through rate suggests slower sales and potential inventory management issues. Retailers use sell-through data to identify top-performing products, assess the effectiveness of pricing, promotions, and product placement, and make informed decisions about inventory replenishment, markdowns, or clearance sales. By monitoring sell-through rates, retailers can optimize their product mix, reduce excess inventory, and improve profitability.


A shipment refers to the transportation of goods from one location to another, typically from a supplier or manufacturer to a retailer or distributor. A shipment can involve various logistics processes, such as packaging, labeling, documentation, and arranging transportation services. It may be delivered through different modes, including trucking, air freight, sea freight, or a combination of these methods, depending on the distance and urgency of the delivery. The shipment process also involves tracking and monitoring the movement of goods to ensure timely and secure delivery. Retailers rely on shipments to replenish their inventory, fulfill customer orders, or restock their stores. Efficient shipment management is crucial to maintaining a smooth supply chain and meeting customer expectations. Retailers often work closely with shipping carriers, logistics providers, and suppliers to optimize shipment processes, minimize transit times, reduce costs, and ensure accurate delivery of goods.


A shipper refers to a person, company, or entity responsible for shipping or transporting goods from one location to another. The shipper can be the supplier, manufacturer, retailer, or a third-party logistics provider engaged in shipping and transportation services. The shipper is responsible for arranging the shipment logistics, including packaging, labeling, documentation, and selecting the appropriate transportation mode and carrier. They ensure that the goods are prepared for transport and comply with relevant regulations and safety standards. The shipper also manages the coordination, tracking, and monitoring of the shipment to ensure it reaches its destination in a timely and secure manner. In some cases, retailers may have multiple shippers, each handling different aspects of their supply chain or specific regions of operation. Effective collaboration and communication with shippers are crucial to ensure the smooth flow of goods, minimize delays, and optimize the overall shipping process.

Ship Date

Ship date refers to the specific date on which goods are scheduled to be shipped or leave a particular location, such as a warehouse or distribution center. It represents the planned departure date for a shipment and is often communicated between the supplier, retailer, or logistics provider to ensure timely delivery. The ship date is crucial for coordinating the logistics, arranging transportation, and meeting customer expectations. Retailers rely on accurate ship dates to manage their inventory, plan for product launches, and fulfill customer orders. By closely monitoring and adhering to ship dates, retailers can maintain efficient supply chain operations, optimize inventory levels, and minimize delays or disruptions in the delivery process. Any changes or delays in the ship date need to be communicated promptly to all stakeholders to mitigate potential impact on downstream processes and customer satisfaction.

Shipping Address

A shipping address refers to the specific physical location where goods are intended to be delivered. It includes the recipient's name, street address, city, state or province, postal or ZIP code, and any other relevant details necessary for accurate and timely delivery. In the retail/wholesale industry, shipping addresses are crucial for fulfilling customer orders, shipping goods from suppliers to retailers, or facilitating returns or exchanges. Retailers collect shipping addresses from customers during the checkout process or through order management systems to ensure the correct delivery of goods. Accurate shipping addresses are essential to prevent shipping errors, minimize delivery delays, and ensure customer satisfaction. Retailers may also have specific requirements or restrictions for shipping addresses, such as limitations on certain regions or countries they can deliver to or restrictions on delivery to PO boxes. Effective address verification and validation processes are employed to ensure accuracy and reduce the likelihood of shipping errors or misdeliveries.

Shipping Country

Shipping country refers to the specific country to which goods are intended to be shipped or delivered. It represents the final destination of the shipment and is an essential component of the shipping address. In the retail/wholesale industry, shipping country information is crucial for international shipping, where goods are transported across borders to customers or retail locations in different countries. Shipping to different countries often involves additional considerations, such as customs regulations, import/export requirements, duties, taxes, and shipping documentation. Retailers need to ensure compliance with the shipping country's regulations and accurately communicate shipping country information to shipping carriers and logistics providers to facilitate smooth customs clearance and international delivery. Shipping country data is also valuable for retailers to analyze sales trends, identify global market opportunities, and optimize their international shipping strategies.

Shipping Type

Shipping type refers to the specific method or mode of transportation used to ship goods from one location to another. In the retail/wholesale industry, different shipping types are employed based on factors such as distance, urgency, cost considerations, and the nature of the goods being transported. Common shipping types include trucking, air freight, sea freight, and courier services. Trucking is often used for domestic or regional transportation, offering flexibility and cost-effectiveness for shorter distances. Air freight is preferred for time-sensitive shipments or international transportation, providing faster transit times but at a higher cost. Sea freight is commonly used for large-volume or long-distance shipments, offering cost advantages but longer transit times. Courier services provide door-to-door delivery for small parcels and time-critical shipments. Retailers choose the appropriate shipping type based on their specific requirements, balancing cost, speed, reliability, and the nature of the products being shipped. Effective shipping type selection and coordination are crucial to ensure timely delivery, minimize costs, and optimize the overall logistics process.


A shortage refers to a situation where there is an insufficient quantity of goods available to fulfill demand or meet the expected inventory levels. Shortages can occur due to various factors, such as unexpected increases in demand, supply chain disruptions, production issues, or forecasting errors. Shortages can result in unfulfilled customer orders, stockouts, missed sales opportunities, and potential damage to the retailer's reputation. Retailers employ inventory management systems and demand forecasting techniques to anticipate and prevent shortages. However, when shortages occur, retailers may implement strategies such as expediting replenishment orders, sourcing alternative suppliers, adjusting pricing or promotions, or prioritizing the allocation of available inventory to high-demand products. Effective shortage management requires proactive monitoring of inventory levels, collaboration with suppliers, and quick decision-making to minimize the impact on customer satisfaction and revenue.

SKU (Stock Keeping Unit)

SKU, an abbreviation for Stock Keeping Unit, is a unique alphanumeric code or number assigned to a specific product or item within a retailer's inventory. SKUs are used to uniquely identify and track individual products, variations, or units of measure, enabling accurate inventory management, sales tracking, and order fulfillment. Each SKU represents a distinct product attribute combination, such as color, size, style, or packaging. Retailers assign SKUs to their products based on their internal categorization and organization systems. SKUs play a crucial role in inventory control, pricing, reordering, and facilitating efficient stock replenishment. Retailers use barcodes or RFID tags associated with SKUs to scan and capture product information at various stages of the supply chain, from receiving goods to point of sale. This helps streamline operations, improve accuracy, and enable real-time visibility of inventory levels. SKU management is essential for retailers to effectively track and manage their products, ensure accurate stock counts, and provide a seamless customer experience.

SKU Rationalization

SKU rationalization is a strategic process that involves evaluating and optimizing the number and assortment of SKUs in a retailer's inventory. It aims to streamline and improve the efficiency of product offerings, reduce complexity, and eliminate underperforming or redundant SKUs. SKU rationalization involves analyzing various factors, such as sales performance, profitability, customer demand, market trends, and operational considerations. Through data-driven analysis, retailers can identify SKUs that contribute the most to revenue and profit while eliminating SKUs with low demand, high costs, or limited strategic value. The goal is to focus on the most profitable and popular products, improve inventory turnover, reduce holding costs, and enhance overall operational efficiency. SKU rationalization also enables retailers to allocate resources effectively, optimize shelf space, and allocate marketing investments to the most impactful SKUs. However, SKU rationalization requires careful consideration and balancing to avoid alienating customers or eliminating products that may have long-tail demand or strategic significance.

Size Breakdown

Size breakdown refers to the distribution or allocation of product quantities across different sizes within a specific SKU or product variant. In the retail/wholesale industry, size breakdowns are commonly used for apparel, footwear, and other products where size variations are available to accommodate different customer preferences or body measurements. The size breakdown specifies the quantity of each size variant within a product SKU, allowing retailers to accurately forecast demand, manage inventory, and fulfill customer orders based on specific size requirements. Retailers analyze historical sales data, market trends, customer preferences, and other factors to determine the optimal size breakdown for a particular product SKU. Size breakdowns can vary depending on regional or demographic considerations, and retailers may adjust their size allocations based on demand patterns or specific customer segments. Effective size breakdown management ensures that retailers have adequate stock of each size variant, minimize stockouts or excess inventory, and meet customer expectations for product availability.


Sourcing refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, selecting, and acquiring suppliers or manufacturers to procure goods or services for retail/wholesale operations. Sourcing encompasses activities such as supplier discovery, supplier qualification, negotiation, contract management, and supplier relationship management. Effective sourcing strategies are crucial for retailers to ensure a reliable and cost-effective supply chain, maintain product quality, optimize pricing, and manage risks. Retailers evaluate potential suppliers based on criteria such as product quality, pricing, lead times, production capacity, sustainability practices, and compliance with regulatory requirements. The sourcing process involves requesting and reviewing supplier proposals, conducting due diligence, and negotiating favorable terms and conditions. Retailers may engage in direct sourcing, where they establish direct relationships with manufacturers or suppliers, or they may work with intermediaries such as wholesalers or distributors. Sourcing decisions impact product availability, profitability, and the overall competitiveness of retailers, making it essential to conduct thorough analysis and establish strong supplier partnerships.

Special Program

A special program refers to a targeted initiative or promotion designed to drive sales, enhance customer engagement, or achieve specific business objectives. Special programs are often temporary campaigns or events that offer unique benefits, discounts, or incentives to customers or business partners. Examples of special programs include seasonal sales events, loyalty programs, customer appreciation days, trade show promotions, exclusive product launches, or collaborations with influencers or celebrities. Retailers leverage special programs to attract new customers, retain existing ones, differentiate themselves from competitors, and generate buzz or excitement around their brand or products. These programs are typically accompanied by targeted marketing efforts, personalized offers, and enhanced customer experiences to maximize their impact. Special programs require careful planning, execution, and monitoring to ensure they align with the retailer's overall strategy, deliver the intended results, and provide a positive return on investment.

Split Delivery

Split delivery refers to a shipment or order that is divided into multiple deliveries, each sent to a different location or recipient. In the retail/wholesale industry, split delivery may occur for various reasons, such as fulfilling orders with multiple products sourced from different warehouses, delivering products to different retail store locations, or accommodating customer preferences for separate shipments. Split delivery allows retailers to optimize logistics, minimize transit times, and enhance customer convenience. It enables the retailer to fulfill an order more efficiently by dispatching available items immediately while awaiting the availability of other items. Split delivery also allows retailers to customize delivery options based on customer requirements, such as shipping certain items to a customer's home address and others to a designated pickup location. Effective split delivery management involves coordinating multiple shipments, tracking each delivery separately, and ensuring accurate and timely communication with customers regarding the different delivery schedules.

Split Shipment

Split shipment refers to the process of dividing a single order or shipment into multiple packages or shipments due to various reasons, such as inventory availability, size limitations, or logistics constraints. It involves separating the products from a single order into different packages or parcels for independent transportation. Split shipment is common when products are sourced from multiple locations or warehouses, or when specific items within an order are not available at the same time. Retailers use split shipment to fulfill customer orders more efficiently and quickly by sending available items while waiting for the remaining items to become available. Split shipment ensures that customers receive part of their order promptly rather than waiting for the entire order to be complete. It allows retailers to optimize inventory management, reduce backorders, and improve customer satisfaction by providing partial order fulfillment. Retailers need to effectively track and communicate split shipments to customers, providing accurate information regarding each shipment's status and expected delivery.


The stage refers to a specific phase or step in a process or workflow. The term can be applied to various operational areas, such as supply chain management, order processing, inventory management, or product development. Each stage represents a distinct milestone or activity within the overall process. For example, in the supply chain, stages may include procurement, production, quality control, warehousing, transportation, and distribution. In order processing, stages can involve order capture, verification, fulfillment, and delivery. The concept of stages helps retailers or organizations to break down complex processes into manageable steps, enabling better coordination, monitoring, and optimization. It provides a structured framework for managing activities, assigning responsibilities, and ensuring smooth workflow transitions. By understanding and managing each stage effectively, retailers can enhance efficiency, improve process visibility, identify bottlenecks or areas for improvement, and deliver a seamless experience to customers.

STD (Stock Transfer Document)

STD stands for Stock Transfer Document, which is a record or document used in the retail/wholesale industry to track the transfer of inventory or stock between different locations within a company or organization. An STD serves as a formal record of the movement of goods and contains essential information such as the item description, quantity transferred, source location, destination location, and any associated remarks or instructions. STDs are commonly used when goods are transferred between warehouses, distribution centers, retail stores, or other internal locations. They facilitate accurate inventory management, enable stock reconciliation, and provide visibility into the movement of goods within the organization. STDs often accompany the physical transfer of goods and are used for verification and record-keeping purposes. Retailers may employ electronic systems or software to generate and manage STDs, streamlining the transfer process and ensuring accurate documentation. Effective STD management helps retailers maintain inventory accuracy, optimize stock levels, and facilitate efficient replenishment and allocation of goods across different locations.


A store refers to a physical establishment or location where products are displayed, marketed, sold, and often stored for customer convenience. Stores can take various forms, such as department stores, specialty boutiques, supermarkets, convenience stores, or online stores. They serve as the primary point of interaction between retailers and customers, providing a tangible space for showcasing and selling products. Stores are designed to create a pleasant shopping environment, attract customers, and facilitate product discovery and selection. They typically feature attractive displays, product arrangements, signage, and merchandising strategies to engage customers and drive sales. Stores may also offer additional services such as customer assistance, fitting rooms, payment processing, and order pickup or returns. In recent years, the rise of e-commerce has led to the emergence of online stores, where customers can browse and purchase products through digital platforms. Regardless of the format, stores play a vital role in the retail industry by offering a physical presence for customer engagement, brand representation, and immediate product availability.

Style Number

A style number, also known as a style code, is a unique identifier assigned to a particular style or design of a product within the retail/wholesale industry. It helps differentiate different versions or variations of a product, such as different colors, patterns, or features. Style numbers are typically alphanumeric codes that retailers use to organize, track, and manage their product offerings. They enable efficient inventory management, order processing, and product identification. Style numbers can be specific to a particular brand, retailer, or manufacturer and are used to facilitate communication and coordination across different parties involved in the supply chain. Style numbers are important for retailers to accurately locate and retrieve products, manage stock levels, track sales performance, and provide accurate information to customers. They also play a role in product cataloging, pricing, and merchandising decisions. Retailers may develop their style number systems or adopt industry-standard formats depending on their specific requirements and organizational structure.


Styleout is a term used to describe the process of showcasing or promoting a particular style, trend, or collection of products to customers. Styleout events or displays are organized by retailers to create excitement, generate interest, and drive sales for specific styles or product categories. Styleouts often involve visual merchandising techniques, such as creating dedicated displays, arranging products in appealing ways, using props or signage to highlight key features, or organizing fashion shows or presentations. Styleout events may be seasonal, aligning with fashion trends or new product launches, or they may be specific to a particular brand or collection. Retailers leverage styleouts to inspire customers, demonstrate product versatility, and encourage them to make purchases. Styleout strategies may include cross-selling or upselling techniques, bundling related products, offering exclusive discounts or incentives, or providing personalized styling advice. Through styleouts, retailers aim to create a unique and engaging shopping experience that encourages customers to explore and appreciate the selected styles, resulting in increased sales and brand loyalty.


A supplier is a company or individual that provides goods or services to a retail or wholesale business. They are responsible for manufacturing, sourcing, or distributing products that are then sold to customers. Suppliers play a crucial role in the supply chain and supply management process. They may produce their own products or act as intermediaries, connecting manufacturers with retailers. In the retail/wholesale industry, suppliers are relied upon to provide high-quality products, meet delivery deadlines, and maintain consistent pricing. Successful supplier relationships are built on effective communication, trust, and collaboration to ensure the smooth operation of the business and customer satisfaction.

Target Demographic

The target demographic refers to the specific group of individuals or customers that a retail or wholesale business aims to attract and serve. It is a defined segment of the population with shared characteristics, such as age, gender, income level, lifestyle, and interests. Identifying the target demographic is essential for effective marketing, product development, and overall business strategy. By understanding the preferences, needs, and behaviors of the target demographic, retailers and wholesalers can tailor their offerings, messaging, and promotional efforts to better appeal to and meet the expectations of their desired customer base. The target demographic analysis involves market research, data analysis, and customer segmentation to identify the most profitable and responsive customer groups. This information helps businesses make informed decisions about pricing, product assortment, advertising channels, and other marketing activities, ultimately maximizing their chances of success in the competitive retail/wholesale industry.


A techpack, short for technical package, is a comprehensive document that provides detailed information about a product's design, construction, materials, and specifications. It is commonly used in the retail and wholesale industry to communicate product requirements and instructions to manufacturers or suppliers. The techpack includes technical drawings, measurements, color references, material details, trims, stitching specifications, and other relevant information necessary to produce the product accurately and consistently. By providing a clear and standardized format for conveying product information, techpacks help ensure that products meet the desired quality standards, design aesthetics, and functional requirements. They serve as a vital communication tool between designers, product developers, and manufacturers, facilitating efficient and accurate production processes. Techpacks also help minimize errors, misinterpretations, and rework, reducing production costs and lead times. In today's globalized retail/wholesale industry, where products are often manufactured in different locations, techpacks are instrumental in maintaining consistency and quality across the supply chain. They enable effective collaboration between design teams, sourcing specialists, and manufacturers, leading to successful product launches and customer satisfaction.


Terms refer to the conditions, policies, and legal agreements that govern the business relationships between buyers and sellers. These terms typically include aspects such as pricing, payment terms, delivery schedules, returns and exchanges, warranties, and any other specific terms and conditions agreed upon by both parties. Establishing clear and mutually beneficial terms is essential for ensuring a smooth and transparent transaction process. Well-defined terms help protect the interests of both buyers and sellers, minimize disputes and misunderstandings, and establish a foundation of trust and accountability. The terms can be negotiated between the parties involved and may vary depending on factors such as the type of products being sold, the volume of the transaction, and the prevailing industry practices. Retailers and wholesalers should carefully review and communicate their terms to customers and suppliers to avoid potential conflicts and ensure a positive business relationship. They should be written in a concise, unambiguous manner and may be documented in contracts, purchase orders, invoices, or other written agreements. Regularly reviewing and updating terms to reflect changing market conditions, regulations, or business needs is crucial for maintaining a competitive edge and mitigating risks in the dynamic retail/wholesale industry.


A threat refers to any external factor or competition that poses a risk or potential harm to the success and profitability of a business. These threats can come from various sources, such as competitors, market trends, economic factors, technological advancements, or changes in consumer behavior. Recognizing and proactively addressing threats is essential for businesses to adapt, stay relevant, and maintain their competitive advantage. For example, a threat could be a new competitor entering the market with a similar product at a lower price, potentially leading to customer attrition. Alternatively, advancements in technology could disrupt traditional retail models, posing a threat to businesses that do not embrace digital transformation. By identifying threats, businesses can develop strategies to mitigate risks and capitalize on opportunities. This may involve conducting market research, monitoring industry trends, investing in innovation, diversifying product offerings, enhancing customer experiences, or adapting marketing and distribution channels. Understanding threats allows businesses to anticipate challenges and make informed decisions to navigate the rapidly changing retail/wholesale landscape successfully.

Trend Board

A trend board, also known as an inspiration board or mood board, is a visual collage that represents current or upcoming trends, styles, colors, and design concepts relevant to a particular market or product category. Trend boards are widely used in the retail/wholesale industry, especially in fashion, home decor, and lifestyle sectors, to gather and communicate creative ideas. They serve as a source of inspiration for designers, product developers, and merchandisers, helping them envision and create collections that align with consumer preferences and market demands. Trend boards typically include images, fabric swatches, color palettes, textures, typography, and other visual elements that capture the desired aesthetic and mood. By visually curating trends and design concepts, trend boards facilitate effective communication between different stakeholders in the product development process. They help align teams, provide a common visual reference, and ensure a cohesive and on-trend product assortment. Trend boards can be created through physical collages, digital tools, or software applications, depending on the preferred workflow and collaboration methods. In an industry driven by fast-changing trends and consumer preferences, trend boards play a crucial role in guiding decision-making, enhancing creativity, and staying competitive in the ever-evolving retail/wholesale market.


Turns, also known as inventory turnover, is a metric used to measure the efficiency of inventory management. It represents the number of times a company's inventory is sold and replaced within a specific period, usually a year. High inventory turnover indicates that products are selling quickly, which is generally favorable as it minimizes holding costs and reduces the risk of obsolescence. Low inventory turnover, on the other hand, suggests slow sales and potential issues with demand forecasting, product selection, or pricing. Calculating turns involves dividing the cost of goods sold (COGS) by the average inventory value during a given period. The result represents how many times the inventory was sold and replenished. Retailers and wholesalers strive to optimize their turns by effectively managing their inventory levels, ensuring a balance between meeting customer demand and minimizing excess stock. Increasing turns can lead to improved cash flow, reduced carrying costs, and better profitability. It requires accurate demand forecasting, efficient supply chain management, and a deep understanding of customer preferences and buying patterns. Monitoring turns allows businesses to identify slow-moving items, adjust pricing or promotions, and make informed decisions about inventory replenishment and assortment planning. By aiming for optimal turns, retail and wholesale companies can improve their overall operational efficiency, responsiveness, and financial performance in a competitive market.


UDF stands for User-Defined Field. It refers to a customizable data field within a software system or database that allows users to define and store additional information relevant to their specific business needs. UDFs provide flexibility and adaptability to tailor the system to accommodate unique data requirements or industry-specific information that may not be included in standard pre-defined fields. In the context of retail/wholesale, UDFs can be used to capture and store additional details about customers, products, orders, or any other relevant data. For example, a retailer may create a UDF to record specific customer preferences or additional contact information. These fields can be populated manually or automatically through integrations with other systems or data sources. By leveraging UDFs, businesses can enhance their data management capabilities, improve reporting and analysis, and customize their software systems to align with their specific workflows and information needs. UDFs allow for a higher degree of data granularity, enabling businesses to capture and utilize information that is unique and valuable to their operations. They provide a way to bridge the gap between standardized software solutions and the specific requirements of individual retail and wholesale businesses, empowering users to efficiently manage and leverage their data assets.

UOM (Unit of Measure)